Otolaryngologist (ENT doctor). What does this specialist do, what studies do, what pathology treats?

Who is the otolaryngologist (otorinolaryngologist, Laura doctor, ear-throat-nose)?

Otolaryngologist ( Full name - otorhinolaryngologist )

- This is a doctor who treats the disease of the ear, throat, nose and spicy sinuses.

The full name of the profession "otorinolaryngologist" consists of the following words:
  • OTOS ( Otsi. )- an ear;
  • Rhinos ( Rinos )- nose;
  • lalarnx ( Larings )- throat;
  • Logos ( Logos. )- the science.

From the name of the specialty often the particle "Reno" often falls out, but this does not mean that this is already a completely different specialist who is engaged in only the throat and ear and does not treat the disease of the nose. It's just too long name is not very convenient for pronunciation, so it is often reduced by calling a doctor with a otolaryngologist.

There is an even shorter option name of the specialty - ENT doctor. Such a reduction is obtained from the first letters of the name of the main bodies that this specialist is engaged in (

L - Larian, O - Otok, R - Rino

) And is the most convenient option from all the names of this profession, since no word falls out and pronounces easily. True, in this case, confusion is created for a person who first hears about such a doctor, because it is not clear what kind of body "ENT". Deciphering this cut, people gave another name to this specialist - "Ear-throat-nose."

Among the otolaryngologists there are the following narrow specialists:
  • Children's Laurian - treats diseases of ENT organs in children;
  • Lor Surgeon. - engaged in the problems of ear, throat and nose, which require surgical intervention, and also conducts plastic operations ( Lor Plastic Surgeon );
  • Lor Allergologist - treats allergic diseases of the upper respiratory tract;
  • Laura-Oncologist. - He is engaged in the treatment of nose tumors, ear, throat, larynx and trachea;
  • Olenrologist - a doctor who treats neurological violations related to speech, swallowing, smelling and maintaining equilibrium of the body ( vestibular apparatus inner ear );
  • vestibular - a otolaryngologist who is engaged in diseases of the vestibular apparatus, that is, equilibrium impairment ( dizziness ) or coordination of movements, both both associated with the inner ear and with diseases of the central nervous system ( that is, this doctor is also a neurologist );
  • Lor Surdologist - a doctor who specializes in treating hearing problems;
  • Lor Foniatra - He is treating problems with speech and voice.

What does the otorinolaryngologist do?

Otorinolaryngologist (

ENT doctor

) is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of ear diseases, throat and nose. These three organs are united in one specialty not by chance. Ear, throat and nose is a single system that ensures the contact of a person with the world around the world through speech, hearing and smell. This may make sure every person who at least once in his life was sick

Rougom

If you remember that at the same time he not only did not feel smell, but also heard poorly, temporarily did not distinguish tastes or lost his voice.

Organs that treat the otolaryngologist

Organ Which departments include? What functions do?
Outdoor Ear
  • Auricle - cartilage formation covered with skin;
  • External hearing aisle - The funnel-shaped canal, which ends at the drummeal.
  • Sound - sound passing through the auditory pass, is enhanced;
  • Protection of the middle ear - It is carried out due to the development of ear sulfur.
Middle ear
  • eardrum - the boundary between the outer and middle ear;
  • Drum cavity - department between the eardrum and the inner ear;
  • Hearing bones - driven by oscillations of the eardrum;
  • Eustachian tube - the auditory canal, which connects the nasopharynx and the drum cavity;
  • mastoid - part of the temporal bone.
  • Soundwork - Transfer of sound waves on the liquid of the snail of the inner ear ( Endolimfa );
  • Ventilation of the drum cavity - carried out through Eustachiev pipe.
Interior Ear (Labyrinth )
  • Snail - bone education in the form of a spiral;
  • Three semiccur - part of the bone labyrinth;
  • Spell ( vestibulum. )- Located between snail and semicircular channels.
  • The function of the organ of hearing - transformation of sounds into a nervous impulse in snail;
  • The function of the vestibular apparatus ( Equilibrium organ )- carried out in anticipation and semicircular channels, due to the presence of sensitive receptors, which capture the endolymph movement when the body position changes.
Pharynx (Pharynx )
  • nasopharynx - is behind the nasal cavity;
  • Rotoglot - is behind the oral cavity;
  • GARTANTROGLE - Located between the Rothoglotka and the larynx.
  • Breath - The throat is part of the upper respiratory tract;
  • Swallowing - The throat participates in promoting food from the oily cavity;
  • Protective function - The breath is located adenoids and palatine almonds, which are immune authorities.
Larynx (Larynx. )
  • Spell - Division between the throat and voice slit;
  • voice gap - Here are voice ligaments;
  • Pierce space - The cavity, which is located below the voice slot and gradually goes into the trachea.
  • breath - the lads refers to the middle respiratory tract;
  • Voice formation - on the exhalation of fluctuations in voice ligaments form sound waves;
  • Protective function - Due to the presence of a nastrosta, covering the larynx during swallowing, food does not fall into the larynx, but goes into the esophagus.
Trachea
  • cervical Located below the larynx;
  • Breast Department - Located behind the sneakers and ends with the left and right bronchus.
  • Respiratory function - The trachea refers to the middle respiratory tract.
Nose cavity
  • nasal septum - This is a bone-cartilaginous education, which divides the nasal cavity by two halves;
  • Actually nasal cavity - It consists of three nasal strokes that are formed between three nose sinks ( Bone grown ) and end with holes in the nasopharynk ( Hoans ).
  • Respiratory - The cavity of the nose belongs to the upper respiratory tract;
  • olfactory - There is an olfactory epithelium in the nose cavity;
  • protective - It is carried out by the delay of large particles on the mucous membrane, which are inhaled with air, and then removed during exhalation or sneezing.
Occonduct sinus (Putness sinuses of nose, sinuses )
  • Gaymorov Picks - Located under the bokes on the sides of the nose;
  • Frontal sinuses - Located above eyebrows on the sides of the bridges;
  • Golded sinuses - Located near the Uppernutron Territory of each eye;
  • Wedge-shaped sinuses - Located at the Nizhnevnoyrene region of each eye.
  • protective - soften the strength of the blow during injuries;
  • Resonator - Participate in the formation of voices unique for each person.
  The ENT doctor treats the following diseases:

Rhinitis

Rinith is inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, that is, what is commonly called a runny nose.

There are the following forms of rhinitis:
  • Infectious rhinitis - caused by bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms;
  • Allergic rhinitis - develops when allergens hit ( Alien substances ) on the mucous membrane of the nasophack, reactivity ( sensitivity ) which in relation to these allergens is sharply increased;
  • Vasomotor ( Nechegethetive ) Rinith - arises due to the wrong, too strict reaction of blood vessels on the impact of such external stimuli as cold air and sharp smell;
  • acute rhinitis - this is rhinitis with a sudden start and a rapid flow, which lasts from several hours to 1 - 2 weeks;
  • Chronic hypertrophic rhinitis - the shape of chronic rhinitis, in which the thickening of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity is observed ( Especially nasal shells ) and / or the growth of connective tissue in the sublifting layer;
  • Chronic atrophic rhinitis - dystrophic changes in the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity due to chronic rhinitis, and the discharge from the nose is not observed;
  • ozhe ( Silver runny nose )- Atrophy ( Destructive processes ) The mucous membrane, bone-cartilage tissues of the nose, while the nasal moves are expanding, and crusts are formed in the nose cavity, which causes a malicious smell.
Depending on the cause, chronic rhinitis can be:
  • nonspecific - Have different reasons and identical manifestations;
  • Specific - have a specific reason or pathogen and special manifestations ( tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, actinomycosis, syphilis and others ).

Curvature of the nasal partition

The curvature of the nasal partition is the deformation of the bone and / or the cartilaginous partition department, and the deformation is not always visible outside.

There are the following reasons for the curvature of the nasal partition:
  • uneven growth of the bones of the skull;
  • Injuries ( Nose Fracture );
  • Displacement to the side under the influence of a tumor, an enlarged nasal sink or polyp.

Nasal bleeding

The otorhinolaryngologist treats those cases of nasal bleeding that are associated with diseases of the nose or the incomplete sinuses, or if bleeding occurs with the increased sensitivity of the cavity capillaries to high pressure (

Arterial or atmospheric

).

Sinusitis

Sinusitis is the total name of inflammatory processes in the incomparatory sinuses (

Putting sinuses of nose

). It is important to note that the sinusites most often occurs on the background of rhinitis, so rhinosinusitis is very often observed. To other reasons, sinusits ​​include penetration

infection

through blood vessels (

observed in acute infectious diseases

) or dental problems and operations on the teeth.

Sinusitis include:
  • hymorit - inflammation of the maxillary or gaimore sinus;
  • Etmoite - inflammation of the lattice sinus;
  • Frontit - inflammation of the frontal sinus;
  • sphenoiditis - inflammation of a wedge-shaped sinus;
  • Aerosinusitis - Sinusitis, resulting from the effects of sudden oscillations of atmospheric air on the apparent sinuses of the nose.

Chronic inflammation is most often observed in the gaimore and lattice sinuses.

Injuries of the incomplete sinus

In the injury to the apparent sinuses of the nose include bruises and injuries. Bone injuries, in which the sinuses of the nose are located, can not have a cosmetic defect, but also be dangerous due to the proximity to the brain.

Hematoma and Abscess Nasal Partition

The hematoma of the nasal partition is a blood cluster in a liquid or curved the form between the cartilage and the sample (

In case of injury of cartilage partition

) or between the bone and the periosteum (

In case of injury of bone partition

).

When the hematoma suppuration is formed

abscess

- The cavity filled with pus.

Polyps in the nose and spicy sinuses

Polyps in the nose occur due to the growth of the mucous membrane. Usually several polyps are formed, which hang to the nasal cavity. Many researchers believe that they have inflammatory origins, so often such a state is called polypotic rhinitis or sinusitis (

Most often, the polyps are formed in a gaimore sinus

).

The bleeding polype of the nasal partition is especially dangerous (

Angiranulem

), Which have a wide leg, is formed in the forefront of the nasal partition, rapidly increase in size and easily bleeding.

Tumors of the nose and the incomplete sinuses

The tumors of the nose and the incomplete sinuses are in second place in the prevalence among the ENT organs (

The first place is taken by larynx tumors

).

The benign nose tumors and the incomplete sinuses include:
  • Papillomas - warts that are most often observed in people over 50 years old, some papillomas can grow into a malignant tumor;
  • adenoma - This is a tumor of glandular cells, which is formed where the mucous membrane contains a lot of glands, namely, in the cavity of the nose, the gaimor sinus and the labyrinth cells of the lattice bone;
  • fibroma - a nasal cavity tumor consisting of a connecting ( Rubatova ) fabric;
  • Vascular tumors - It is periodically bleeding nasal cavity tumors that can increase and germinate in adjacent air axle sinuses ( have a tendency to malignant reincarnation );
  • Osteomes - the bone tumor, which is more often formed in the frontal sinus, lattice bone and less often in the gaimor sinus;
  • Chondroma - Tumor cartilage tissue of the nasal partition;
  • Mukocele - This is a tumor of the apparel sinuses filled with mucus ( Mucus - mucus ), which is formed when closing output ducts of the nasal sinuses ( injury, inflammation, polyps, tumor ), while cyst, increasing in size ( within 10 - 20 years ), gradually stretches the bone walls of the sinuses and squeezes the neighboring fabrics ( eyeball );
  • Pyochele - This is the inflamed Mukocele.

Malignant tumors (

cancer

) Most often amazed by the Gaimorov sinus and the cavity of the nose.

Infringement of smell ( Dysosmia )

The otorinolaryngologist is engaged only by the reasons for the evaluation of smell, which are associated with a violation of nasal respiration.

Disruption of smelling happens:
  • sharp ( temporary )- arises after a runny nose and lasts no more than 1 month;
  • Chronic - lasts more than 6 months.

Adenoids

Adenoids are a lymphoid fabric that contains a cluster

lymphocyte

in the form of bags. Adenoids are located in different deposits of nasopharynx, the largest adenoids are called almonds. All adenoids together form a body of the immune system, which in children actively works before the formation of them

Immunity

Therefore, adenoids are often incremented in size, closing the air paths.

Adenoitis

Adenoidite is inflammation of pharyngeal almonds.

Pharyngitis

Faringitis is called inflammation of the mucous membrane of the entire pharynx (

Farings - Hollow

).

Depending on the affected pharynx of the department distinguish:
  • Rinofaringite ( NazoFaringitis )- inflammation of the nasopharynx;
  • orofaringitis - inflammation of the rotogling;
  • Faringolaryngit - inflammation of the alignment;
  • Tonnylofaringitis - Inflammation of the pharynx and the sky almonds.

Angina ( tonsillitis )

Angina (

from the Latin word ango - squeeze, compress

) - This is the defeat of the Sky almonds, which has an infectious allergic nature. That is, the disease is triggered by infection, and then maintained by an allergic process.

Angina is usually called the acute form of inflammation of the skynote almonds with purulent discharges, and tonsillitis is chronic inflammation with unfinished symptoms.

Paratonzillit

Paratonzillitis is the inflammation of the tissues that surround the skynings of the almonds, and an affectionant is often formed (

Paratonzillar abscess

).

Laryngitis

Larygitis is inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx.

Larygitis can have the following forms:
  • Acute laryngit - arises against the backdrop of a cold or acute infection of the upper respiratory tract;
  • Chronic Larygit - laryngitis lasting more than 3 weeks;
  • Chronic catarrhal laryngitis - limited by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx without its special changes;
  • Chronic fat-polypose laryngitis ( Larygitis Reinek, Larygit of smokers )- arises due to the edema of the Rainek space ( between the voice bale and mucous membrane of the larynx );
  • Chronic atrophic laryngitis - is characterized by a gradual thinning of the mucous membrane and the formation of the connective tissue at the site of glands excreasing;
  • Chronic hypertrophic laryngitis - characterized by the growing epithelium of the mucous membrane of the larynx ( Hyperplazia );
  • Reflux-Larygit - It occurs with a frequent cast of the contents of the stomach through the esophagus in the larynx.

Croup

Crup (

from the English word CROUP - Kark

) - This is the inflammation of the larynx, which manifests three characteristic symptoms - a hoarse voice, "bark"

cough

and difficult breathing. Croup is observed in children when

diphtheria

(

True

) and with laryngitis (

False

).

Laryingospasm

Laringospasm is a sudden and pronounced narrowing of the voice cream due to a convulse reduction of the muscles of the larynx. Usually occurs in children, due to frequent hypovitaminosis and byvitaminosis (

Especially vitamin D.

) and disadvantage

trace elements

(

Especially calcium

).

Sweet Qincke

The swelling of Quincke is an allergic reaction in the form of a larynx swelling, which arises in response to such allergens as food, medicines, flowers, wool or insect bites. Develops very quickly, causing a breath (

suffocation

).

Snore

The snoring is a frequent cause of appeal to the otolaryngologist, but not all the reasons for snoring treats the ENT doctor. For example, an apnea syndrome in a dream (

Stop breathing in a dream

) is included in the competence of a dynologist (

Specialist in sleep violations

), and diseases of the lower jaw - in competence

Dentologist

.

Tracheitis

Tracheitis is inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea. The diseases of the trachea can be treated both by otolaryngologist, and the therapist, depending on which the patient has concomitant diseases. If more upper respiratory tract (

Nose, Hollow

) And the lag, the tracheite is engaged in the ENT doctor, and if the bronchi and lungs are affected - therapist.

Tumors of pharynx and larynx

Tumors of pharynx and larynx can be benign and malignant. Also, tumor education is also occupied.

To benign tumors of pharynx and larynx include:
  • Youth Angiofibroma - this is the formation of nasopharynx, which grows in the direction of the nasal cavity, is usually observed in boys during puberty;
  • Papillomatosis Larry - a benign tumor, which develops under the influence of human papilloma virus against the background of reduced immunity;
  • angioma - This is a vascular tumor in the cavity of the nasopharynx or larynx.
Large tumor formations include:
  • Singing nodules ( Nodes of voice ligaments )- observed in persons whose profession is associated with constant load on voice ligaments, this state is considered a form of chronic laryngitis ( Many authors consider any chronic laryngitis as a precancerous disease. );
  • Polyp Lastani. - also considered a form of chronic laryngitis, although in some cases the polyps arise due to genetic predisposition;
  • Cysts Gortanya - There are more often in the field of the epiglotan due to the blockage of the output slope of the slope of the mucous membrane;
  • Laringesele - protrusion of the larynx department, which is called the ventricle, due to chronic increasing intractorous pressure ( Cough, infection, tumors, injuries ).

Malignant tumors include

Cancer Gortani.

and carcinoma.

Voice and speech disorders

A Voice Disorders is engaged in the ENT doctor, namely a phoniator, since the reasons for changing the votes are usually associated with the larynx apparatus and voice ligaments.

If the speech disorder is associated with the diseases of the brain, due to which the regulation of the neuromuscular apparatus of speech organs is disturbed, the otolaryngologist directs the patient to a neurologist.

Problem

Stuttering

or diction defects spend a speech therapist (

not a doctor, has pedagogical education

).

To the voices of the voice, which the otorinolaryngologist is engaged in:
  • dysphonia - changing the voice of the voice, its height and strength, which is manifested by belligent, hoarseness or bespidylony;
  • aphonia - This is a complete absence of voice, a person can only speak in a whisper;
  • Flying - a rapid weakening of the voice when overvolving voice ligaments ( "Fatigue" ligaments );
  • Voice disorders during operations - Often, after surgery for larynx, a person may damage the return nerve, which causes paralysis of voice ligaments with one or both sides.

Large and Trachea injuries

Large injury includes bruises, bone fractures and cartilage, burns and injuries.

In the trachea injuries, there is a subcutaneous emphysema neck, that is, the accumulation of the air under the skin. Although injuries and relate to surgical diseases, but the symptoms of damage to the larynx and trachea can first lead the patient to the otorhinolaryngologist.

Outdoor Otit

Outdoor otitis is the inflammation of the outer ear, which occurs on the skin of the ear shell or the outer auditory passage.

Outdoor otitis can have the following forms:
  • Limited Otitis - furuncle of outdoor auditory passage, which is purulent inflammation of the hair onion ( Follicula ) and the rowing gland;
  • Diffuse Outdoor Otitis - Inflammation of the skin, bone department and the subcutaneous layer, often turning on the eardrum.

Simply put, outdoor otitis is

dermatitis

(

Skin disease

) Outdoor ear, which can be complicated by the defeat of his deep departments.

Among the specific lesions of the outer ear, most often found:

Chondroperichondrite of ear sink

Chondroperichondrite of the ear shell is a limited damage to the cartilage and the superior sink, and the ear of the ear is not amazed.

Behemmatoma

The behemmetom is a blood cluster between the cartilage and the superior or between the sacrifice and the skin of the ear shell, which arises due to the injury of the auricle.

Sulfur plug

The sulfur tube is a cluster of ear sulfur in an outer hearing aisle, which is observed with increased development of viscous ear sulfur or with a narrow and winding outdoor auditory passage. Sulfur tube can close the hearing pass partially or completely.

Middle Otitis

The average otitis is the inflammation of the middle ear. Most doctors under average otitis understand the inflammation of the drum cavity, but Eustachiyeva pipe, the cave of the mastoid process and the eardrum also includes the middle ear.

There are the following forms of medium otites:
  • acute middle Otitis - lasts up to 3 weeks;
  • Chronic middle Otitis - lasts more than 8 weeks;
  • Exudative average otitis ( serous or ungounted average otitis ) - fluid in the drum cavity;
  • purulent middle Otitis - Pump in the drum cavity;
  • Adhesive Otitis - Spikes in the drum cavity;
  • Aerootite. - the state of congestion in the ears when flying in airplanes, which occurs in violation of the function of the Eustachius pipe.

Eustachitis ( Torobyat )

Eustachitis (

Synonyms - Tobobotitis, Eustachius Dysfunction

) - This is the inflammation of the auditory or Eustachius pipe, the function of which lies in the ventilation of the drum cavity. Refers to medium otitis.

Mastoiditis

Mastoid is the inflammation of the mastoid process, which is usually observed in children. Also refers to medium otitis.

Mastoid can be:
  • Primary - due to the injury of the deputy head of temporal bone;
  • Secondary - It is a complication of acute and chronic purulent average otitis.

Labyrinthitis ( Internal Otitis )

Labyrinthitis call inflammation of the inner ear. Because of its complex structure, this part of the ear is called a labyrinth. Most often, the labyrinthitis occurs as a complication of medium otitis. Less likely (

mostly in children

) Internal Otitis develops due to infection of the brain shells (

meningitis

).

Headowing and deafness

Headowing is the deterioration of hearing, which can be expressed in varying degrees.

Deafness is a severe degree of hearing loss, that is, almost complete loss of hearing, while a person cannot perceive someone else's speech.

The cause of hearing impairment can be:
  • violation of sounds from outdoor ear through the middle ear to the snail of the inner ear ( Conductive tightness );
  • Violation of the transformation of sounds into a nervous impulse in the Sailie itself or a violation of a hearing nerve pulse ( neurosensory or gentleness ).

Meniery's disease

Meniery's disease is the disease of the inner ear, in which the function of the vestibular apparatus is disturbed due to increased pressure in the ears maze.

Otosclerosis

Outklerosis is the damage to the bone department of the aurous labyrinth, in which the browning of bone tissue occurs and the mobility of the auditory bones is reduced, which leads to a violation of the transmission of sound oscillations in the inner ear.

Texicing syndrome ( Sea disease, kinetosis )

The syndrome syndrome is observed when traveling on water transport, flights on the plane, driving in the car, that is, in cases where a person moves as an unnatural way for it. In such situations, the movement of fluid in the inner ear is poorly amenable to the law of gravity and the vestibular apparatus "gives failure".

Vestibular neuronit ( neuritis )

Vestibular neuronit is the inflammation of the sentence-snellery (

vestibular

) Nerva or its branches. The disease is caused by herpes virus (

Simple Herpes Virus or Laying

), especially against the background of reduced immunity, so often observed after sharp respiratory infections (

ARVI

).

Benign positional dizziness

A benign positional dizziness is the disease of the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear, which is manifested by short attacks of dizziness that appear only with certain head movements.

Tumors of ear

Ear tumors are mainly benign. In addition to tumors, the so-called tumor-like formations are observed, by type resembling a tumor, and in structure - growths.

The tumor formations of the outer ear include:
  • Exostose - bone growths that are formed most often in people who love to swim in cold water ( Ear Swimmer );
  • Gogress Tufus - painful formations in the form of tubercles, which are located at the edges of the ear shell;
  • Budrock Darwin - a benign nodule, which is located at the top of the auricle ( It is considered atavism );
  • Keloid Uha's Mushya - Excessive height of the scar tissue in the form of nodules on both sides of the UH uhmka, arises due to the microtraum.
Outdoor auditory passes include:
  • Angioma - these are benign vascular tumors from small capillaries, inclined to bleeding;
  • Fiber Mety - a benign tumor is usually formed in places of puncture for earrings;
  • osteoma - tumor of the bone department of an external auditory passage;
  • Cyst of ear sink - most often occurs after frostbite of the auricle due to the violation of the floating cartilage;
  • Malignant tumors - Cancer, Sarkoma and Melanoma.

Among the tumors of the middle ear most often found:

  • Glomus tumor - a benign tumor, which is formed from paragaliyev ( Hormonian-nerve cells );
  • choleateatoma - most often occurs during chronic purulent otitis, when there is a regional breakpoint breakpoint, through which epithelial cells of the outer auditory pass are growing into the drum cavity;
  • osteoma - bone tumor of the mastoid process;
  • Malignant tumors - Cancer of the middle ear.

The inner ear tumors include acoustic

Nevnoma

- Hearing nerve tumor (

Sniply nerve

).

Nose, ear, larynx and trachea

Nose foreign bodies are most often found in children who love to drink different minor items in their nose. Sometimes the foreign body is represented by an ingrown tooth of the upper jaw, which, gradually covered with calcium salts, turns into a nose.

Children also love to swallow small items, while they can not get the esophagus as "planned", but in the ladies, stopping there and causing a sharp attack of suffocation (

Stenosis of Gortani.

). By chance, you can also swallow such a "flying object" as an insect, if yawning, do not close the mouth.

As for the ear, then in the form of a foreign body most often performs a cotton swab, which broke away from the stick during the cleaning of the ears. At the same time, living beings can fall into the outer auditory passage - flying or crawling insects.

What symptoms turn to the ENT doctor?

The symptoms of diseases of the ENT organs are usually felt where they arise, that is, in the nose, ear, throat. However, there are cases when a person gets used to his symptom, (

for example, hindered nasal breathing

) or considers it a purely external defect (

The curvature of the nasal partition

). In such cases, due to a constant oxygen starvation of the body, a person begins to "hurt" a different body, and he refers to other specialists (

Cardiology, neurologists, pulmonologists

) about dizziness,

arrhythmia

and other symptoms.

Often, patients turn to the otolaryngologist about the "sore throat", that is, the states when there is

sore throat

When swallowing or during a conversation. However, the "patient throat" is not a medical term, there is no such disease. The throat is not an organ, but a part of the neck between the sub-bandy bone and the sternum, where the two organs are located, which the otorinolaryngologist is engaged - this is a throat and larynx.

Symptoms with whom to contact the otolaryngologist

Symptom Mechanism of origin What studies are made to identify the cause? What diseases testifies?
Difficulty of nasal breathing or nasal congestion - swelling of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, due to which the nasal stroke occurs; - the presence of a foreign body; - the growth of the mucous membrane, which prevents the passage of air through the nasal stroke; - the displacement of the nasal partition in one direction closes one of the nasal strokes; - Long or continuous use of vasoconstrictor droplets, after the cessation of the action of which the opposite effect occurs, that is, nasal congestion.
  • inspection of the external nose;
  • Rososcopy;
  • active front rinomanomanometry;
  • diaphanoscopy;
  • study of the respiratory and olfactory functions of the nose;
  • Endoscopy of the nose and nasopharynx;
  • Ultrasound ( Echosinusoscopy );
  • Radiography of the nose and the apparent sinuses;
  • X-ray-contrast study of the nasal sinuses;
  • MRI ( Magnetic resonance imaging ) or CT ( CT scan );
  • puncture of the sinus Gaimore and Loboy );
  • general blood analysis;
  • analysis on the microflora of the nose;
  • Serological blood test;
  • histological examination;
  • Analysis on antibodies;
  • Skin allergies.
  • infectious rhinitis;
  • Allergic rhinitis vasomotor rhinitis;
  • chronic hypertrophic rhinitis;
  • sinusitis;
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • adenoids;
  • adenoitis;
  • polyps;
  • Tumors of the nasal cavity and the incomplete sinuses;
  • Mukocele;
  • Hematoma or abscess of the nasal partition.
Sneezing - A reflex act, which occurs when irritating the nerve endings of the mucous membrane in order to remove harmful substances from the nasal cavity.
  • infectious rhinitis;
  • Allergic rhinitis.
Pain or Out of Nose - Subjective feeling of inflammation and swelling of the upper respiratory tract.
  • infectious rhinitis;
  • Sinusites ( Etmoite );
  • Polyps and tumors of the nasal cavity.
Pain pain (forehead, cheekbones, temple, eye ) - filling the separation sinuses with liquid ( Especially purulent ) Disrupts their air and cause painful sensations.
  • inspection of the external nose;
  • Rososcopy;
  • study of the respiratory and olfactory function of the nose;
  • diaphanoscopy;
  • radiography or CT apparent sinuses;
  • X-ray-contrast study of the sinuses;
  • puncture of the sinus Gaimore and Loboy );
  • Ultrasound ( Echosinusoscopy );
  • blood test;
  • Analysis on the microflora.
  • Sinusites ( Schimorite, frontititis, etmoiditis, sphenoiditis );
  • Mukocele ( Pyochele );
  • injuries of the bones of the skull;
  • Tumors of the nasal cavity and the incomplete sinuses.
Headache, feeling of gravity in the head - the edema mucous membrane of the nose and the incomplete sinuses squeezes the lymphatic slots and disrupts the lemon outflow from the skull; - the absence of nasal respiration disrupts the movement of the spinal fluid in the brain; - The total intocication of the body at high temperature is manifested by the headache.
  • outdoor inspection;
  • Rososcopy;
  • pharyngoscopy;
  • Endoscopy of the nose and pharynx;
  • active front rinomanomanometry;
  • radiography or CT apparent sinuses;
  • X-ray-contrast study of the nasal sinuses;
  • puncture of the sinus Gaimore and Loboy );
  • blood test;
  • Analysis on the flora from the nose and zea.
  • rhinitis;
  • sinusitis;
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • angina.
Selection of nose - slime ( Colorless selection )are observed in allergic reactions in the mucous membrane, with a violation of the reaction to external stimuli ( reduction and relaxation of vessels ) or with viral infection; - Pump ( Yellow-green selection )It is allocated in the presence of a bacterial infection; - colorless liquid - during the injuries of the skull and solid cerebral shell, the selection of cerebrospinal fluid from the nose can be selected.
  • Rososcopy;
  • study of the respiratory and olfactory function of the nose;
  • Endoscopy of the nose and nasopharynx;
  • diaphanoscopy;
  • radiography or CT apparent sinuses;
  • Ultrasound ( Echosinusoscopy );
  • puncture of the sinus Gaimore and Loboy );
  • blood test;
  • nasal smear on the microflora;
  • Histological research.
  • infectious rhinitis;
  • Allergic rhinitis vasomotor rhinitis;
  • chronic hypertrophic rhinitis;
  • sinusitis;
  • Injuries of the incomplete sinuses;
  • tumors.
Dry nose - Reducing the number or complete destruction of the glance of the nasal oral mucosa, which are distinguished by mucus.
  • Rososcopy;
  • study of the respiratory and olfactory function of the nose;
  • Endoscopy of the nose.
  • chronic atrophic rhinitis;
  • Oge
Bleeding from nose - Local reasons - damage to the vessels of the nasal cavity or an increase in the permeability of the vascular wall; - Common reasons - the disease is striking all organism vessels ( Congenital or acquired ) or violates the process of stopping bleeding; - external physical reasons - change of atmospheric pressure, physical stress, overheating.
  • Rososcopy;
  • Endoscopy of the nose and nasopharynx;
  • X-ray, CT and MRI of the nose and the incomplete sinuses;
  • histological examination;
  • general blood analysis.
  • chronic atrophic rhinitis;
  • ozen;
  • curvature of nasal distortion;
  • nasal partition polyps;
  • injuries of the apparent sinuses;
  • Tumors and foreign bodies of the nasal cavity or sinuses.
Reduced sense of smell - violation of the delivery of fragile substances to the olfactory center due to the violation of the nasal respiration and the blockage of the olfactory gap; - damage to the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity; - congenital underdevelopment of the olfactory bulb ( Part of the olfactory analyzer ); - damage to the sense of smell.
  • Rososcopy;
  • study of the respiratory and olfactory function of the nose;
  • Endoscopy of the nasal cavity;
  • radiography;
  • general blood analysis;
  • X-ray and CT of the nose and the incomplete sinuses;
  • Ultrasound ( Echosinusoscopy );
  • histological examination;
  • active front rinomanomanometry;
  • Puncture puncture.
  • chronic rhinitis ( Hypertrophic, atrophic );
  • ozen;
  • Sinusites ( Etmoite );
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • nasal cavity polyps;
  • Tumors of the nasal cavity and the incomplete sinuses.
Feeling unpleasant odor (stench ) - the destruction of the mucous membrane of the nose, nasal shells, cartilage and nose bones, while the crusts are formed, which make an unpleasant smell ( It is usually felt only by the patients ).
  • Rososcopy;
  • Endoscopy of the nose;
  • Study of the respiratory and olfactory function of the nose.
Pain or throat (Especially when swallowing ) - When passing food or swallowing movements, irritation or compression of the inflamed mucous membrane of the pharynx is enhanced.
  • outdoor inspection;
  • pharyngoscopy;
  • Endoscopy of nasopharynx;
  • laryngoscopy;
  • Ultrasound larynx;
  • CT and MRI;
  • general blood analysis;
  • express test for streptococcus;
  • Serological blood test;
  • Histological analysis.
  • pharyngitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • Angina ( tonsillitis );
  • paratonzillar abscess;
  • Tumors and larynx injuries;
  • Lanes and trachea foreign bodies.
Cough - irritation of the nervous endings of the inflamed mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract; - irritation of the nervous endings of a wandering nerve, whose sprigs are in the field of external auditory passage.
  • outdoor inspection;
  • pharyngoscopy;
  • laryngoscopy;
  • Ultrasound larynx;
  • radiography;
  • CT and MRI of soft tissues of the neck;
  • general blood analysis;
  • otoscopy;
  • smear on the microflora from zea and larynx ( sputum );
  • histological examination;
  • blood test for antibodies;
  • skin allergies;
  • Serological blood test.
  • laryngitis;
  • croup;
  • adenoitis;
  • tracheitis;
  • larynx tumors;
  • Large injuries and trachea;
  • Non-thorn bodies of larynx, trachea and ear;
  • Sulfur tube.
Difficulty breathing through mouth / suffocation - Consistent larynx swelling in the field of the abstract of larynx ( Above voice gap ) in adult or pierce space ( Below voice gap ) Children narrows the lumen of the larynx, breaking breathing; - mechanical narrowing of the larynx by a foreign body, a tumor.
  • laryngoscopy;
  • Endoscopy of nasopharynx;
  • radiography;
  • Ultrasound larynx;
  • CT and MRI of soft tissues of the neck;
  • skin allergies;
  • Mazz to microflora ( Or taking sputum );
  • Serological blood test.
  • laryngitis;
  • croup;
  • swelling quinque;
  • tumors and tumor formations of pharynx and larynx;
  • Large injuries;
  • Lanes and trachea foreign bodies.
Unpleasant - The presence of a purulent process and destroyed tissues in the mucous membrane causes the appearance of unpleasant smell of mouth.
  • pharyngoscopy;
  • Endoscopy of nasopharynx;
  • laryngoscopy;
  • Mazz from the oz on the microflora.
  • pharyngitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • tonsillitis;
  • tracheitis.
Hoarseness / changing the timbre or loss of votes - inflammatory or allergic swelling in the larynx, which violates the function of voice ligaments; - Increased vocal ligament ( loud speech, singing, the need to talk for a long time ); - damage to the voice ligaments with components of tobacco smoke, toxic gases or gastric content when pushing from the esophagus in the larynx; - education on bundles of nodules, papilloma or tumor; - change of the mucous membrane of the voice gap ( Cell growth or thinning ); - Muscle paralysis of larynx or damage or snubs ( Returning nerve ).
  • laryngoscopy;
  • stroboscopy;
  • Ultrasound larynx;
  • CT and MRI of soft tissues of the neck.
  • Larygitis ( Acute and chronic );
  • croup;
  • tumors and tumor formations of larynx;
  • Large injuries and trachea;
  • Lanes and trachea foreign bodies.
Gnusability - Violation of nasal respiration changes the acoustic peculiarities of voice timbre, as the sound does not penetrate the cavity of the nose and the incomplete sinuses.
  • Rososcopy;
  • pharyngoscopy;
  • Endoscopy of the nose and nasopharynx;
  • Radiography of the nose and the incomplete sinuses;
  • CT and MRI.
  • chronic hypertrophic rhinitis;
  • sinusitis;
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • adenoids;
  • adenoitis;
  • polyps;
  • Tumors of nasopharynses and nose.
Snore - Noisy breath in a dream occurs when relaxing muscles of respiratory tract or their pronounced narrowing, while the walls of the pharynx vibrate or fight each other, which causes intermittent sound when snoring.
  • Rososcopy;
  • pharyngoscopy;
  • laryngoscopy;
  • Endoscopy of the nose and nasopharynx;
  • active front rinomanomanometry;
  • CT and MRI;
  • general blood analysis.
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • adenoids;
  • chronic hypertrophic rhinitis;
  • Polyps in the nose;
  • nasal cavity tumors;
  • sinusitis;
  • chronic tonsillitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • adenoids.
Pain or itching in the ear - irritation of the nervous endings of various departments of the ear; - Reflection of pain along the nerves in diseases of neighboring bodies.
  • Outdoor examination of the ear;
  • otoscopy;
  • X-ray of temporal bones;
  • CT and MRI;
  • study of the passability of hearing pipes;
  • blowing the hearing pipes;
  • pharyngoscopy;
  • laryngoscopy;
  • smear on the microflora from the ear;
  • Serological blood test;
  • Histological blood test.
  • Outitis outdoor;
  • chondroperichondrite of ear shell;
  • from the behameda;
  • tumors and tumor formations of outdoor ear;
  • Middle Ear Tumors ( choleateatoma );
  • acute middle otitis;
  • purulent average otitis ( Acute or chronic );
  • laryngitis;
  • pharyngitis.
Impairment of hearing / noise in the ears - with the accumulation of pus or ear sulfur in the outer hearing aisle, a narrowing or complete closure of its lumen is observed; - violation of air passage through Eustachiyev, the pipe disrupts the ability of the eardrum to transmit sound waves into the inner ear; - the formation of adhesions between the mucous membrane of the drum cavity and the eardrum disrupts the sound functioning function of the latter; - Violation of the transformation of sound into a nervous impulse in the inner ear.
  • outdoor inspection;
  • otoscopy;
  • study of the passability of hearing pipes;
  • blowing the hearing pipes;
  • radiography;
  • CT and MRI;
  • audiometry;
  • tympanometry ( Impedancemetry );
  • Study by chamberton;
  • Refrigeration survey;
  • vestibular samples;
  • general blood analysis;
  • smear on the microflora from the ear and the oz;
  • Rososcopy;
  • Endoscopy of the nose and nasopharynx;
  • Analysis on antibodies.
  • sulfur tube;
  • Outdoor Otitis ( otitis outdoor auditory passes );
  • tumors of outdoor, middle and inner ear;
  • foreign body in the outer hearing aisle;
  • medium otitis;
  • Evstachitis;
  • labyrinthitis;
  • Meniery's disease;
  • senile touginess;
  • injuries of temporal bone and eardrum;
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • adenoids.
Constitution in the ear - violation of "air conditioning" ( Ventilation ) the middle ear through the hearing tube due to partial or complete closure of its lumen leads to retracting or protrusion of the eardrum, which causes a feeling of concurrency; - increase or decrease in atmospheric or water pressure ( When flying in an airplane or dive into the water ) Increases the burden on Eustachiev pipe and eardrum.
  • outdoor inspection;
  • otoscopy;
  • study of the passability of hearing pipes;
  • blowing the hearing pipes;
  • radiography;
  • CT and MRI;
  • audiometry;
  • tympanometry ( Impedancemetry );
  • Study by chamberton;
  • Refrigeration survey;
  • vestibular samples;
  • general blood analysis;
  • smear on the microflora from the ear and the oz;
  • Rososcopy;
  • Endoscopy of the nose and nasopharynx;
  • Analysis on antibodies.
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • chronic rhinitis;
  • chronic sinusitis;
  • adenoids;
  • polyps;
  • pharyngitis;
  • sulfur tube;
  • Outdoor Otitis ( otitis outdoor auditory passes );
  • Eustachitis ( Torobyat );
  • medium otitis;
  • Evstachitis;
  • Foreign body in the ear.
Audibility of his own voice in the ear - when closing the lumen of the external auditory pass or the hearing tube ( Eustachiyeva ) There is a change in the resonant features of the formation of sound.
  • sulfur tube;
  • Outdoor Otitis ( otitis outdoor auditory passes );
  • Eustachitis ( Torobyat );
  • Medium otitis.
Allocations to their ear - purulent ( Yellow-green ) Isolation There may be a consequence of inflammation in the field of external auditory pass or middle ear ( After the breakpoint breakpoint, the pus can stand out out ); - bloody issues - arise during injury or in the destruction of tissues of a malignant tumor; - Colorless selection - may occur against the background of injuries and are a cerebrospinal fluid.
  • outdoor inspection;
  • otoscopy;
  • study of the passability of hearing pipes;
  • blowing the hearing pipes;
  • radiography;
  • CT and MRI;
  • Refrigeration survey;
  • general blood analysis;
  • smear on the microflora from the ear;
  • Serological blood test;
  • blood test for antibodies;
  • Histological analysis.
  • Outdoor Otitis ( Otitis auditory passage );
  • tumors of external auditory passage;
  • Middle Ear Tumors ( choleateatoma );
  • Medium otitis.
Dizziness - during the movement of the head there is a move ( Spearness ) in the rear semidructure channel of torn abnormal pebbles ( Otolith ) the inner ear, which is attached to a change sensitive to the position of the body receptors; - inflammation of the vestibular nerve leads to the death of nerve fibers and impaired pulses from the vestibular apparatus; - An increase in the amount of endolymph in the labyrinth of the inner ear leads to its water and increases pressure in the labyrinth, violating the functions of the vestibular apparatus.
  • Refrigeration survey;
  • otoscopy;
  • vestibular samples;
  • stabilography;
  • electronistagmography;
  • videotagmography;
  • CT and MRI;
  • general blood analysis;
  • Serological blood test;
  • A smear on the microflora from the ear.
  • labyrinthitis;
  • sulfur tube;
  • medium otitis;
  • Meniery's disease;
  • a benign positional dizziness;
  • vestibular neuronit;
  • Meniery's disease;
  • syndrome syndrome;
  • tumors of the inner ear ( Nevnoma of auditory nerve ).
Nausea - The vestibular apparatus has a connection with glazation nerves, a vegetative nervous system and engine nerves of the limbs, so when it is disturbed by its function, quick movements occur, gait and coordination of movements are disturbed, sweating, nausea and vomiting appear.
Self-arbitrary rhythmic movements of eyeballs
Violation of coordination of movements
 

What studies does an otolaryngologist conduct?

The reception of the otolaryngologist's doctor begins with the clarification of the patient's complaints, after which the doctor begins to seek the cause of the complaints. First of all, the ENT doctor should exclude easily disposable causes, for example, toxic effects of drugs. The deterioration of hearing may be due to the use of some

Antibiotics

(

Gentamicin, amikacin

) or diuretic (

Furosemid

), and nasal congestion - with constant instillation of vasoconstrictor nasal droplets.

After clarifying the complaints, the doctor embarks on the inspection, on the basis of which decides which studies to appoint to clarify the causes of the symptoms that have arisen.

Studies that spend the ENT doctor

Study What diseases reveal? How is it held?
Study of the nose and the incomplete sinuses
Inspection of external nose
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • adenoids;
  • injuries and tumors of facial bones;
  • Hematoma and abscess of the nasal partition.
During the inspection of the nose, it comes to feeling the skin of the nose, its partitions and the facial bones of the skull, and also examine the thread of the nose. Sometimes the diagnosis is evidenced by the open mouth of the patient and the benusability, which occurs during the conversation.
Rososcopy.
  • rhinitis;
  • nose polyps;
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • adenoids;
  • Nose cavity tumors.
Rososcopy ( Inspection of the nose cavity ) It happens the front and rear. The front rosicopy is carried out with the help of a nasal mirror, which is moved by the nostril for inspecting the front of the nasal cavity. Rear rosicopy is carried out with the help of the nasopharynk mirror and spatula. The spatula holds the tongue, and the mirror is administered to the rear wall of the throat, after which it is with the help of a frontal reflector ( Mirrors ) Or another lighting device, which the doctor attaches on the forehead, the light is fed on the mirror.
Diaphanoscopy
  • sinusitis;
  • Tumors of the pressing sinuses.
Diaphanoscopy ( Translucence ) The incomplete sinuses are carried out in a dark room. The light source can be brought to the frontal sinus outside ( from under orbit eyes ) Or enter it into the oral cavity or nose using a special tool.
Research of the respiratory function of the nose
  • deformation of the partition;
  • foreign body;
  • chronic rhinitis;
  • chronic sinusitis;
  • hematoma or nasal partition abscess;
  • Polyps and other tumors of the nasal cavity, incomplete sinuses and nasopharynses;
  • adenoids.
To check whether the air passes through the nasal moves use the usual cotton wool, the piece of which is supplied to each nosion alternately ( At the same time closing the second ) and watch the movement of the wool ( When inhalation and exhalation of air through a wool nostril should move ). Also use a mirror or a metal object that fades if the air is freely exhaled through the nostril.
Active front rinomanometry
  • rhinitis ( chronic, vasomotor, allergic );
  • adenoids;
  • snore;
  • tonsillitis;
  • The curvature of the nasal partition.
The study is held sitting. The patient closes one nostril with a special tip ( adapter ), puts on a mask ( transparent mask similar to the one as used for oxygen supply ) And breathe through the second open nostril. The device to which the mask is connected, registers air pressure during breathing. The same is carried out with the second nostril. Rinomanometry registers in the form of a graph of the amount of air, which passed through each nostril during the study. The method does not reveal a specific disease, and fixes the disruption of nasal respiration.
Research of the olfactory nose function
  • chronic rhinitis;
  • Oge
The study is carried out with the help of standard solutions with a different degree of smell severity. The sensitivity to the weak smell is determined by 0.5% acetic acid solution, to the middle smell - clean wine alcohol, to a strong smell - valerian tincture, and to a very strong - ammonia alcohol.
Radiography
  • sinusitis;
  • injuries and foreign bodies;
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • nasal tumors and otolonic sinuses;
  • adenoitis;
  • Hematoma and abscess of the nasal partition.
Radiography is carried out in several projections, for this patient may ask to open the mouth or touch the apparatus of the chin, the forehead or the tip of the nose.
Kt. (CT scan ) и MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging )
  • the curvature of the nasal partition;
  • sinusitis;
  • nasal tumors and otolonic sinuses;
  • hematoma and abscess of the nasal partition;
  • Injuries of the apparent sinuses.
During CT, the patient lies on the diagnostic table, and tomograph revolves around him, making layers. With an MRI, the patient is also in a horizontal position, a special coil is put on the area under study and a diagnostic table is promoted inside the tomograph.
Puncture of the incomplete sinus
  • sinusitis;
  • Tumors of the incomplete sinuses.
Purchase puncture is carried out by a special needle. For puncture of the Gaimore sinus, the needle is introduced through a nasal stroke, the bumping sinus is carried out with a special trepan ( bone drilling tool ) At a point, which is determined by X-ray.
X-ray-contrast study of the nasal sinuses
  • sinusitis;
  • Tumors of the incomplete sinuses;
  • Injuries of the incomplete sinuses.
Using puncture or sinus catheter, the yamik into the otolone sinus is introduced to 5 ml of a contrast agent. After that, a series of X-ray pictures is carried out within 10 minutes.
Endoscopy of the nasal cavity, otolonic sinuses and nasopharynses
  • chronic rhinitis;
  • sinusitis;
  • nasal and nasopharynx tumors;
  • Evstachitis;
  • adenoids;
  • adenoitis;
  • curvature of the nasal partition;
  • nasal cavity polyps;
  • hematoma and nasal partition abscess;
  • foreign bodies.
Endoscopy of the nose and nasopharynx ( Rinofaringoscopy ) It is held in the patient's position sitting. Under local anesthesia, a thin metal tube is injected into the nose ( Endoscope ) or flexible endoscope ( Fibroendoscope ) with a video camera and a light source at the end. The image is transmitted to the monitor screen. During endoscopy, you can use tissue fence tools ( biopsy ) Or carry out surgical operations. ENT doctor can use the usual endoscope ( Without a camcorder ), but with an optical device, while the inspection is carried out through the "peephole" on the side of the endoscope facing the doctor.
Ultrasound (Echosinusoscopy )
  • sinusitis;
  • Foreign bodies and tumors of the incomplete sinuses.
The ultrasonic sensor is placed above the upper jaw and explore the incomplete sinuses for the presence of fluid in them. Currently, a special echosusop is also applied, which allows you to scan the frontal and topless sinuses and give data in the form of a graph. The method is safe for children from 2 years.
Study of the larynx, throat and trachea
Inspection
  • croup;
  • Voice disorders;
  • Large injuries;
  • Large tumors ( Laringesele );
  • laryngitis.
The doctor deals with the submandibular lymph nodes, striking larynx and neck, determining the soreness, the mobility of the larynx when swallowing. In case of inspection, symptoms are characteristic of some states, such as open mouth, noisy breathing, cough. In addition, the doctor may hear an unpleasant smell of mouth, which can mean a purulent process in a throat or larynx.
Farmingoscopy.
  • pharyngitis;
  • adenoids;
  • adenoitis;
  • tumors of pharynx;
  • angina;
  • chronic tonsillitis;
  • Paratonic abscess.
The patient is asked to open the mouth and enter the spatula into the oral cavity, which gives the front of the language, and the mirror for the inspection of the nasopharynx and almonds. If a person is expressed in a silence reflex ( Vomiting or cough when pressing the back wall of the throat ) The doctor conducts a study under local anesthesia.
Indirect laryngoscopy (mirror )
  • pharyngitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • croup;
  • swelling quinque;
  • laryngospasm;
  • Large injuries and trachea;
  • tumors and tumor formations of pharynx and larynx;
  • Lanes and trachea foreign bodies.
Indirect laryngoscopy is a study of a larynx with the help of a lighting device and a mirror, which is injected through the mouth. This method is used during preventive inspections, since it can be used not so much information with it.
Direct laryngoscopy (Fibergolaryngoscopy, endoscopic laryngoscopy ) The study can be carried out using a solid ( Rigid ) or flexible laryngoscope. A solid laryngoscope is a metal tube with a light source. It is introduced into the larynx through the mouth, while the patient throws the head back. The procedure is carried out under general anesthesia. A flexible laryngoscope can be administered through the mouth or nose. To suppress the silence reflex, the mucous membrane of the pharynx is irrigated anesthetic. The doctor examines the larynx through the optical "peephole". Some laryngoscopes have camcorders at the end that send the image to the monitor screen.
Microlaryngoscopy. The study is carried out with the help of a special operating microscope after straight laryngoscopy using a rigid laryngoscope under anesthesia. This method also allows surgical operations.
Stroboscopy.
  • laryngitis;
  • tumor education on voice ligaments;
  • Glow damage;
  • Large tumors.
Streloboscopy allows you to observe the movement of voice ligaments. The study resembles a fibrolaryngoscopy, with the difference that voice ligaments are illuminated by intermittent light, and the frequency of the oscillations of light and vibrations of voice ligaments should not coincide. It is at different frequencies of the oscillations of light and voice ligaments you can see the movement of the latter, which is impossible to notice with conventional laryngoscopy ( The brain perceives rapid movements as a still picture ).
Ultrasound
  • Large's foreign body;
  • Large injuries;
  • tumors and tumor formations of larynx;
  • paratonzillitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • tracheitis.
The ultrasonic sensor is installed above the front area of ​​the neck and explore the larynx and the cervical trachea. Ultrasonic rays are reflected from the organs to varying degrees, which makes it possible to identify many pathological conditions.
CT and MRI. (With contrasting )
  • adenoids;
  • larynx and pharynx tumors;
  • pharyngitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • injuries and foreign bodies of pharynx and larynx;
  • Highland swelling;
  • paratonicillitis.
Since the larynx and the pharynx are the neck organs, then for their inspection, MRI and CT of soft tissues of the neck are used. Strengthening the contrast of fabrics with gadolinium ( at mrt. ) or iodine-based solutions ( Kt. ) It is used if you need to establish the presence of a tumor and its prevalence.
Radiography
  • injuries, larynx and pharyngeal bodies;
  • Large tumors.
The radiography of the larynx and the pharynx is performed in the lateral projection, that is, the patient stands on the side of the scanner or falls on the side.
Study of the ear
Outdoor inspection
  • Outitis outdoor;
  • from the behameda;
  • chondroperichondrite of ear shell;
  • Cyst of ear shell;
  • fibroma mushy;
  • angioma;
  • Power tufasi;
  • Bugorka Darwin;
  • keloids on the urine of the ear;
  • Mastoid.
The outer inspection of the ear shell allows you to identify its changes and pain, as well as an increase in local lymph nodes.
Otoscopy.
  • tumors of external auditory passage;
  • sulfur tube;
  • Otosclerosis;
  • Medium otitis.
Two methods can be used to study the middle ear and outdoor auditory passage - classic and modern. The classic method implies the use of a funnel, which is injected into the auditory passage and a frontal reflector, which the doctor directs a ray reflected from the light source. To facilitate the work of the doctor, the otoscopes were created, which are equipped with an optical and lighting system ( Nefny reflector does not need ). Also use operational microscopes or video endoscopes to inspect the eardrum.
Study of hearing pipes (Functional tests )
  • Eustachitis ( Torobyat );
  • Middle Otitis;
  • Otosclerosis.
Samples allow you to find out if the hearing pipes are passing. For this, the doctor asks the patient to simply swallow, make a swallowing movement by closing the nose ( Toyneby Reception ), close your mouth and nose and breathe with effort ( Valzalville sample ).
Through the hearing pipes using a ear cylinder Usually used in negative functional samples. End of ear cylinder ( pears ) Entered in a nostril or connect a catheter to the balloon, which through the nose is injected into the auditory passage. After that, the doctor one end of the otoscope ( Special rubber hose ) Insert into the patient's ear, and the other end is in their ear. To check the passability of the Eustachius pipe, the doctor begins to push the air in the nostril using a ear cylinder ( pears ), while the patient utters words.
Radiography of temporal bones
  • acute and chronic average otitis;
  • Mastoid;
  • Otosclerosis;
  • injuries;
  • tumors.
When the patient's ear x-ray is asked to cuddle to the ear cassette in the lying or sitting position.
CT and MRI.
  • acute and chronic average otitis;
  • Mastoid;
  • Otosclerosis;
  • labyrinthitis;
  • Middle Ear Tumors ( cholesterol, Osteoma );
  • tumors of the inner ear ( Glomus Tumor, Nevnoma of the Sniply Nerva ).
Computer tomography and magnetic resonance tomography have no difference from ordinary CT and MRI. Studies are also held in the patient's position lying on the diagnostic table.
Audiometry (Speech, tonal, computer )
  • medium otitis;
  • Evstachitis;
  • labyrinthitis;
  • Otosclerosis;
  • Meniery's disease;
  • senile touginess;
  • Neurosensory hearing loss.
Audiometry allows you to find out the sharpness of the patient's hearing. The otolaryngologist can conduct an audiometry, pronouncing words that loudly, then in a whisper, while at different distances from the patient ( Speech audiometry ) Or use tool methods, for example, a tone audiometry, during which the patient's headphones serve sound if it hears them, then clicks the button. The most objective method is a computer audiometry, the principle of operation of which is based on the detection of reflexes, which occur in a person when exposed to sound.
Timpanometry (Acoustic impedanceometry )
  • Exudative average otitis;
  • adhesive otitis;
  • Evstachitis;
  • Otosclerosis;
  • neurosensory touginess;
  • Internal injury and tumors.
Tympanometry allows you to estimate the mobility of the eardrum. For the study in the outer hearing pass, a probe is introduced with a tip, which should herdictly close the outer hearing pass. After that, the device begins to feed the audio signals through the probe and register those signals that did not pass into the middle ear and returned to the probe. All these data are recorded on the device in the form of a graph. The doctor may ask the patient to carry out tests for determining the patency of the hearing pipe.
Research by the chamberonami Study by tune allows you to get information about how well the sound is carried out in the inner ear and how well it is perceived. For research used, mostly two chalkton ( High frequency and low-frequency ), which alternately bring to the outer ear, then to the presenter process and the patterns. As a result, a hearing passport of the patient is obtained.
SEONEVOLOGICAL RESEARCH
  • labyrinthitis;
  • purulent average otitis ( Acute or chronic );
  • Meniery's disease;
  • a benign positional dizziness;
  • vestibular neuronit;
  • syndrome syndrome;
  • Side effects of drugs.
Self-development research includes standard samples that are conducted in neurology. The main samples that the otolaryngologist uses are aimed at assessing the function of the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear ( Tests of visual tracking, study of gait, test finger and other ). As a result, the so-called vestibular passport is filled.
Experimental vestibular tests
  • labyrinthitis;
  • purulent average otitis ( Acute or chronic );
  • Meniery's disease;
  • vestibular neuronit;
  • a benign positional dizziness;
  • syndrome syndrome;
  • Side effects of drugs.
Rotational test It is carried out in the patient's position sitting in the chair, which is rotated in the chair for 20 seconds, after which the patient opens his eyes and fixes the look at the doctor's finger or trying to straighten up. Caloric test It is carried out with hot and cold water or air, which, with a syringe, is administered to an outer hearing pass. Fast press It is carried out using a ear cylinder, the tube of which is inserted into the outdoor passage, then compress and squeeze the pear to squeeze or discharge the air in the middle ear.
Positional vestibular tests
  • labyrinthitis;
  • purulent average otitis ( Acute or chronic );
  • Meniery's disease;
  • a benign positional dizziness;
  • Side effects of drugs.
The purpose of these samples is a provocation of dizziness or nystagma in a patient. The most common breakdown is Dix-Hallpayka's sample, during which the patient sits on the couch, the doctor turns his head's head with his hands, then helps him take a horizontal position, a turn of his head with a couch.
Stability (Stabilometry )
  • labyrinthitis;
  • Meniery's disease;
  • a benign positional dizziness;
  • purulent average otitis;
  • Sound syndrome.
Stabilometer is an objective method of equilibrium assessment. During the study, the patient rises to a special platform, sensors that send signals to a computer are attached to different parts of the patient's body. In addition, this method is used to train the vestibular apparatus.
Electronistagmography, videotagmography Electronistagmography allows you to identify Nistagm - involuntary rotational movements of the eyes ( sign of violation of the vestibular apparatus ). For this, several electrodes are attached around the eyes ( Sensor ), which register the eye movements in the form of a graph. In videotagmography, special glasses are used, with built-in video cameras. These cameras fix the movement of the eye while the doctor or patient perform provocative tests.
 

What laboratory tests appoints a otolaryngologist?

The ENT doctor prescribes laboratory tests, mainly in suspected infection, inflammatory process or an allergic reaction in the body. All analyzes on the microflora are taken before the start of taking antibiotics. If a person is already taking antibiotics, then under the control of the doctor, they are canceled for three days, and after the analysis continues to receive.

Laboratory tests that are appointed LOR doctor

Analysis How to give up and how is it held? What does it reveal? What diseases may indicate?
Nasal microflora smear The study is conducted on an empty stomach. Before taking the material, it is impossible to wash the nose strongly, rinse, use antiseptic sprays or nasal drops. A cotton tampon on a long stick The doctor enters into each nostril, while turning the tampon so as to touch the side walls of the nose cavity. The cotton wand is placed in a test tube and sent to the laboratory, where microscopic and bacteriological research is carried out ( Sowing a nutrient medium ) study and analysis on a polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ).
  • fine The bacteria of the normal flora of the nasal cavity and the pharynx, for example, some types of streptococci and staphylococci, neasery, enterococci, and other microorganisms, which are considered conditionally pathogenic, that is, can cause infection only if the microflora balance is to break or decreases immunity;
  • With inflammation An increase in the number of specific conditionally pathogenic microflora bacteria is detected or pathogenic ( Path-making ) bacteria that in the cavity of the nose or mouth should not be;
  • Antibiotic sensitivity - Determined in the course of bacteriological research.
  • rhinitis ( Infectious and allergic );
  • ozen;
  • sinusitis;
  • papilloma.
Mazz on the microflora from the mouth or pharynx The study is conducted on an empty stomach. Before passing, you can not rinse your mouth with antiseptics, chew a gum or brushing your teeth. The doctor asks for a patient to throw his head back and widely uncover the mouth. The spatula doctor presses the tongue so that you can enter a cotton wand and take a smear with almonds or pharynx. For the study, the sputum is suitable. The material is sent to the laboratory, where the PCR analysis can be carried out ( When suspected of a specific causative agent ) or sowing on the nutrient medium ( to find out which microbes caused inflammation ). In addition, they find out the number of eosinophils in the smear ( With suspected allergy ).
  • Angina ( Including infectious mononucleosis );
  • tonsillitis;
  • pharyngitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • True croup ( diphtheria );
  • adenoitis;
  • Evstachitis;
  • Papilloma voice ligaments.
Metrook on the microflora from the ear A stroke from the ear is taken with a cotton shelf with a common study or surgical instruments during the ear operation. After taking the material, it is applied to the subject glass and sent to the laboratory, where they investigate the smear under the microscope or apply to the nutrient medium ( Tak-Sowing ). With a tank-crop also find out how sensitive microbiotic is sensitive.
  • fine only saprofite can be detected ( "Curly" ) or conditional pathogenic ( Representatives of conventional skin microflora ) microorganisms;
  • With inflammation The outer ear is important the amount of harmful microbes, and if the patient has signs of medium or internal otitis, then any number of pathogenic ( Difficulties ) and conditionally pathogenic ( Conditional pathogens ) bacteria is considered important;
  • Antibiotic sensitivity - Determined in the course of bacteriological research.
  • Outitis outdoor;
  • papillomas of ear shell;
  • medium otitis;
  • internal otitis;
  • Mastoid;
  • Specific infections ( tuberculosis, syphilis, actinomycosis, herpes and others ).
Express Test for Streptococcus The method allows you to quickly find out the nature of the disease ( infectious-allergic ) And begin treatment, without waiting for the results of sowing. For analysis, a stroke is taken from a throat with a cotton wand and scroll through a cotton end in a test tube 10 times that the material gets on the walls of the test tube. Add 4 drops from each bottle to the test tube of 4 drops, which are included, after which they remove the cotton wand, press it and lower the test strips in the test tube.
  • Negative test - one strip, streptococcus group A is absent;
  • Positive test - Two strips, there is a hemolytic streptococcus group A.
  • angina;
  • chronic tonsillitis.
Serological analysis Blood is taken for analysis. The method allows you to identify antibodies to causative agents of infection.
  • The causative agent of syphilis ( Pale treponema );
  • Herpes virus ( Normal and Zoster );
  • tuberculosis stick;
  • Bacteria Perton ( Borgetiel Perptissis );
  • Epstein-Barr virus ( The causative agent of infectious mononucleosis );
  • diphtheria wand.
  • specific rhinitis and sinusitis;
  • pharyngitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • True croup;
  • vestibular neuronit;
  • Outdoor and average otitis;
  • Labyrinthitis.
General blood analysis For the general blood test, blood is taken from the finger by the puncture of its pads.
  • Erythrocytes - decrease with frequent bleeding;
  • hemoglobin - can decrease with chronic bleeding;
  • Thrombocytes - decrease during bleeding;
  • Leukocytes - increase when inflammation;
  • Eosinophilic leukocytes - increase with allergies;
  • erythrocyte sedimentation rate - increases with inflammation, allergies and malignant tumors.
  • rhinitis;
  • sinusitis;
  • pharyngitis;
  • nose bleeding;
  • ENT tumors;
  • Evstachitis;
  • otitis.
Histological examination The material for histological examination is fabrics taken during biopsy. The biopsy is carried out during an endoscopic study of the nasal cavity, fibergolaryngoscopy or during the operation to remove the nose tumor, larynx, ear.
  • Type of tumor ( Find out a benign tumor or malignant only according to histological research );
  • changes in mucous membranes ( Prejudice condition ).
  • tumors of nose, pharynges, larynx, ear;
  • chronic laryngitis ( Hypertrophic, atrophic );
  • chronic rhinitis ( Hypertrophic, atrophic );
  • Chronic otitis.
Analysis on specific antibodies Blood is taken for analysis.
  • immunoglobulins, ( Especially class E. ), which are involved in allergic reactions.
  • allergic rhinitis;
  • Evstachitis;
  • Allergic tracheobronchitis;
  • Sweep quinque.
Skin allergobes Substances with well-known allergens are applied to the forearm area ( Each drop is one allergen ), after which the skin slightly pierce the needle so that the allergens penetrate the skin ( Punch is done next to each drop ). After 30 - 40 minutes assesses the result.
  • Negative reaction - no allergic reaction ( no redness and edema );
  • Positive reaction - redness or blister at the injection site of allergen;
  • dubious reaction - Small redness.
  • allergic rhinitis;
  • Allergic Eusthaitis;
  • swelling quinque;
  • Allergic tracheobronchitis.

What diseases treats the ENT doctor?

The otorolarngologist treats diseases that violate the nasal breathing, the smell, worsen the hearing or cause votes disorders. These may be diseases of an inflammatory or infectious nature, allergic or tumor nature. Sometimes injuries and foreign bodies are caused. The ENT doctor uses both drug and surgical treatment methods. Physiotherapy is very appointed. The choice of treatment method always depends on the specific case.

 

Diseases that the otolaryngologist treats

Disease Basic treatments Approximate duration of treatment Forecast
Nasal disease and spicy sinuses
Acute infectious rhinitis - usually acute rhinitis lasts 7 - 10 days, regardless of treatment ( Especially viral ).
  • The prognosis is favorable, even in the absence of treatment, acute infectious rhinitis ends with complete recovery ( In the absence of complications in the form of bronchitis and pneumonia against the background of weakened immunity ).
Allergic rhinitis - active treatment is carried out during the period of exacerbation, the duration of the relief ( Removal ) Symptoms are usually 2 - 4 weeks.
  • The prognosis is favorable, with a periodic inspection of an allergist and the otolaryngologist, it is possible to achieve a long period of remission ( The period of lack of symptoms ).
Chronic rhinitis
  • Non-media treatment - elimination of factors provoking rhinitis, physiotherapy ( UFO, electrophoresis );
  • Medicia treatment - Antibacterial drops and ointments ( Sulfanimide ointment, acetylsalicyl ointment, Mupirocin, Polydxes ), constant moisturizing the mucous membrane by sprays with sea salt ( Atrophic rhinitis );
  • Sclerosing therapy - is carried out using a hydrocortisone suspension ( injected inside the nasal shell ) with hypertrophic rhine to reduce the volume of the thickened mucous membrane;
  • surgery - It is carried out to reduce the volume of hypertrophied nose shells ( Laser therapy, cryodestruction, excision of a part of the nasal shell ) Usually with endoscopy.
- sclerosing therapy is carried out every 4 days, the course consists of 10 procedures; - The duration of the use of drugs depends on the severity of symptoms.
  • The prognosis is favorable, with the use of modern methods of treatment, symptoms are easily eliminated.
Ozany
  • Irrigation of the nose mucosa - use of sprays with sea water or saline for easy crust removal;
  • Antibiotics - gentamicin, streptomycin;
  • surgery - The use of various natural and synthetic materials for implantation in the submucosal nose layer to narrow the extended nasal moves.
- Sometimes treatment is carried out in the hospital, usually the duration of treatment is 20 - 30 days.
  • In most cases, the forecast is favorable ( With timely treatment ).
Curvature of the nasal partition
  • surgery - Plastic nose partition correction, laser correction, endoscopic submissible resection of spikes.
- The time of staying in the hospital during the operation is 5 days.
  • The forecast is favorable for surgical correction;
  • Medical treatment is inefficient, it helps only in eliminating the symptoms of the concomitant rhinitis;
  • With constant violation of nasal respiration in the body, chronic oxygen starvation occurs.
Nasal bleeding
  • Tamponade Nose cavity - introduction of tampons in the nose;
  • Cutting nose vessels - silver mortar, laser;
  • Supporting treatment - Vikasol, ditinon, calcium chloride solution, blood transfusion.
- the ignition procedure lasts about 30 minutes; - The duration of supporting treatment depends on the amount of blood lost.
  • The forecast depends on the cause of bleeding.
Disruption of smell
  • surgery - removal of polyps, correction of deformation of the nasal partition, partial removal of the nasal sink ( Hypertrophic rhinitis );
  • Biological stimulants - Aloe, vitreous body, vitamins;
  • Soothing drugs - If the smell is broken on the nervous soil.
- The course of treatment with biological stimulants is one month, 2 - 3 courses per year.
  • Forecast in violation of the sense of smell due to the disease of the nose favorable.
Sinusitis
  • Liquid removal - Paschi puncture, washing the yamik catheter, operation;
  • Treatment of inflammation - antibiotics, aspirin;
  • Restoration of respiratory tract - Nasal drops ( Sanorin, Snup, Naphtizin ), washing with mucous membranes by various solutions ( Conducted only by the ENT doctor );
  • physiotherapy - Soluxux, UHF.
- the duration of treatment, depending on the form ( Chronic or sharp ), causes and severity, is 2 to 4 weeks.
  • Forecast with uncomplicated sinusites favorable;
  • In the absence of treatment, such complications are possible as meningitis, otitis, brain abscess, the displacement of the eyeball.
Polyps
  • surgery - removal of endoscopically, laser or using an operation;
  • Medical therapy - elimination of allergic causes of polyps ( Suprastin, hydrocortisone ), antiviral drugs ( in papillomah ), chemotherapy for malignant tumors.
- the rehabilitation course lasts for several months; - Medical treatment is effective if the cause of polyps chronic rhinitis or allergies.
Tumors - Medical treatment is appointed individually.
  • The forecast depends on the type of tumor.
Hematoma and Abscess Nasal Partition
  • surgery - Opening of hematoma or affectionant ( under local or general anesthesia ), liquid removal and drainage;
  • Antibiotics - Amoxiclav, Vancomycin, cefazolin inside.
- the time of staying in the hospital is several days; - Antibiotics apply only against the background of surgical treatment.
  • The prognosis is favorable if it is possible to eliminate the hematoma or abscess on time, otherwise the purulent process extends.
Injuries and foreign bodies
  • surgery - The removal of the foreign object can be carried out endoscopically or during rhinoscopy, operation is carried out during injuries.
- the duration of staying in the hospital during injuries depends on their severity; - Foreign bodies usually "get" for one reception.
  • The forecast depends on the severity of the injury;
  • For foreign bodies, the forecast is favorable.
Diseases of pharynx, larynx and trachea
Pharyngitis
  • Local treatment - irrigation of the mucous membrane with a solution of lugola, Mirismine, the use of anti-inflammatory lollipops ( Septol, Strepsils ), warming compresses on the neck, removal of crusts from mucous, physiotherapy;
  • General treatment - the use of anti-inflammatory drugs ( Aspirin, paracetamol ), antibiotics ( in severe cases ), antiviral drugs.
- the duration of the reception of antibiotics ( Only with laboratory confirmation of bacterial infection ) It is 7 - 10 days, the remaining drugs are used before the disappearance of symptoms.
  • forecast favorable;
  • In chronic pharyngitis with the atrophy of the mucous membrane requires constant removal of dried crusts.
Adenoids
  • physiotherapy - Cuf therapy, UHF;
  • surgery - cryodestruction, laser or ultrasound destruction;
  • Homeopathic drugs - Clever, lymphomiosis, tonsilgon.
- treatment with homeopathic preparations is 1 - 1.5 months; - The course of physiotherapy is established individually.
  • forecast favorable;
  • Adenoids can independently decrease with age;
  • Even in the treatment there is the probability of their re-appearance.
Adenoitis
  • physiotherapy - Tuban quartz, diathermy, electrophoresis;
  • Medical treatment - aerosol inhalation by antiseptics, disinfectants locally, antibiotics inside;
  • surgery - Removal of adenoids.
- The inflammatory process usually lasts 7 days.
  • The forecast is favorable with proper treatment.
Angina
  • General treatment - antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • Local treatment - rinse with antiseptic solutions ( Boric Acid, Furatcilin ) and herbs champs ( Chamomile, Sage ), warming compresses;
  • physiotherapy - UHF, Soluxers;
  • surgery - Opening of the gland and its emptying, after which the almonds themselves are removed.
- Treatment is 1 - 3 weeks, depending on the severity of the flow.
  • The forecast is favorable with timely and proper treatment;
  • In the absence of treatment, the disease passes into a chronic form ( chronic tonsillitis ).
Chronic tonsillitis
  • Medicia treatment - antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs ( Place or inside ), antihistamine preparations, washing of palatal almonds;
  • physiotherapy - centimetheral therapy, ultraviolet irradiation ( UFO );
  • surgery - Removal of inflamed palatal almonds.
- the duration of treatment depends on the severity of the state and frequency of exacerbations; - with frequent exacerbations, the removal of palatal almonds is shown.
  • The forecast is favorable in the absence of frequent infection by beta hemolytic streptococcus Group A ( It causes the development of such autoimmune diseases as rheumatism, glomerulonephritis ).
Paratonzillit
  • antibiotics;
  • Opening of paratronzillary abscess, its emptying and drainage with subsequent removal of almonds.
- The treatment is advisable to spend in the hospital, the duration of treatment is approximately 10 to 12 days.
  • The forecast is generally favorable, an abscess can be independently opened.
Laryngitis
  • Non-media treatment - observe the mode of silence, not to take cold or acute food, physiotherapy;
  • Medicia treatment - antibiotics ( Penicillin, streptomycin ), anti-inflammatory drugs ( aspirin );
  • surgery - When forming an affectionant, it is opened and empty.
- The treatment of laryngitis is carried out within 1 - 2 weeks, but in some cases the silence mode must be observed longer.
  • Acute laryngitis has a good forecast;
  • Chronic forms of laryngitis, especially hypertrophic laryngitis, are considered a precancerous state.
Croup
  • Non-media treatment - air humidification, room air, warm milk, mustard pieces on the neck, foot baths;
  • Removal of suffocation - the attack will stop, if you touch the rear wall of the throat with a spatula, causing a vomit reflex;
  • Medicate - introduction of anti-informy serum, antibiotics, antihistamines, antiviral, expectorant drugs, inhalation;
  • surgery - tracheotomy ( Punch trachea ), laryngoscopy with larynx treatment with vasoconductive substances.
- with false croup ( Podskaya Larygit ) Treatment is assigned to 5 - 7 days ( how with a common cold ) if the attacks are very heavy, then the child is hospitalized; - Treatment of diphtheria is carried out in an infectious hospital, serum is administered within 2 to 4 days.
  • Forecast with false croup usually favorable;
  • In case of diphtheria, it is important to apply serum in time to prevent the body's severe intoxication.
Sweet Qincke
  • With the attack of suffocation - adrenaline is introduced subcutaneously, prednisone intravenously or intramuscularly, antihistamines intramuscularly;
  • Outside - Elimination of contact with allergen, calcium preparations, vitamins, suprastin, freshly frozen plasma.
- In the allergological department, the treatment is carried out within 5 - 7 days.
  • The attack may result in death.
Laryingospasm
  • inhalation of mineral water and medicines;
  • physiotherapy;
  • warm milk;
  • Calcium preparations and vitamin D.
- Usually required coursework drugs.
  • The prognosis is favorable, in children the disease passes with age.
Papillomatosis Larry
  • Medicia treatment - antiviral drugs, improving immunity;
  • surgery - removal by papilloma during laryngoscopy with ultrasound or laser.
- The duration of treatment is established individually.
  • Lastani papillomatosis is also considered a precancerous disease;
  • With pronounced papillomatosis, it is not always possible to restore the voice.
Tumors of pharynx and larynx - with benign tumors, their removal is made; - With malignant tumors, radiant and chemotherapy are also prescribed.
  • The forecast depends on the type of tumor.
Snore
  • Treatment of inflammatory processes of the upper respiratory tract;
  • nasal partition correction;
  • removal of adenoid;
  • Reducing body weight;
  • to give up smoking;
  • use of suspenders for chin;
  • CPAP therapy ( Light artificial ventilation mode ).
- The duration of treatment depends on the cause and choice of the treatment method.
  • The forecast depends on the specific reason and the degree of narrowing of the upper respiratory tract, as well as the development of complications associated with the overall oxygen starvation of the body.
Tracheitis
  • antibiotics;
  • antiviral drugs;
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs ( Inside and in the form of irrigation );
  • expectorant and thinning sputum preparations;
  • Antiallergic drugs ( Antihistamines and Hormonal Preparations );
  • Foot baths, inhalation.
- Treatment of tracheitis is carried out at least 14 days.
  • The forecast is generally favorable;
  • In the absence of treatment, bronchitis and pneumonia are possible.
Voice Disorders
  • treatment of laryngitis;
  • removal of tumors of voice ligaments;
  • Surgical recovery after injury.
- The duration of treatment depends on the cause.
  • The forecast depends on the cause of voice loss and the ability to restore voice ligaments.
Large and Trachea injuries
  • Non-media treatment - hospitalization and bed regime, peace for the injured authority ( Orthopedic collar, silence mode, feeding through a nasogastric probe );
  • Medicia treatment - antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and painkillers;
  • surgery - restoration of the integrity of the neck organs.
- The duration of staying in the hospital, as well as the time and the need for the operation is established individually.
  • The forecast depends on the timely hospitalization, the maintenance of the respiratory tract and the state of the spine.
Human disease
Outdoor Otit
  • Local treatment - washing the ear boric acid or furacilin, lubrication of silver nitrate, prednisone ointment, physiotherapy;
  • General treatment - antibiotics, antifungal drugs are shown only with severe infections ( Ryg, Otomycosis );
  • surgery - shown in the furuncule.
- treatment is carried out within 5 days, with specific processes ( Syphilis, Tuberculosis ) A longer treatment is required.
  • The forecast is generally favorable, but depends on the causative agent of infection and adequate treatment.
Chondroperichondrite of ear sink
  • Local treatment - Lubrication with iodine, silver nitrate, physiotherapy;
  • General treatment - antibiotics ( Tetracycline, erythromycin ) inside;
  • surgery - When the suppuration is incorporated, the dead tissues are removed, the cavity from the pus is cleaned and the tampon with antibiotics is introduced.
- Perichondrite is treated within 2 - 3 weeks.
  • With timely and proper treatment, the forecast is favorable;
  • In the absence of treatment, a cosmetic defect of the auricle is formed.
Behemmatoma
  • surgery - Punch of the behemmetoma, sucking its contents, Introduction to the cavity 2 - 3 drops of iodine and imposing a dense gulling bandage.
- with the suppuration, treatment is carried out in the hospital ( Usually a few days ).
  • With timely treatment, the forecast is favorable;
  • When supposedion arises melting cartilage and formation of a cosmetic defect.
Sulfur plug
  • washing with warm water;
  • Washing the ear with a special syringe.
  • Softening the plug by instilling soda solutions.
- Soda and washing are used for 2 to 3 days, if there is no effect, the washing is carried out by a doctor.
  • The prognosis is favorable, however, in the absence of treatment, a breaking of hearing and dizziness is possible.
Middle Otitis
  • Local treatment - vesseloring drops in the nose, painkillery drops in the ear, alcohol compresses, oxolin oxoline lubrication, physiotherapy;
  • Through the hearing pipes - Exhale with closed mouth and clamping noses, instrumental methods of purging ( Introduction of a catheter in a hearing pipe through the nose );
  • General treatment - antibiotics, antifungal, antiviral drugs;
  • surgery - puncture of the drum membrane and removal of liquid and pus, the trepanation of the mastoid process when mastoid.
- The treatment is carried out from 8 days to 3 weeks, depending on the shape and severity of the disease.
  • The forecast for timely and proper treatment is favorable, acute otitis passes without a trace;
  • In chronic form in the drum cavity, spikes may form that disturb the function of the eardrum and lead to a decrease in hearing.
Evstachitis
Mastoiditis
  • With timely treatment of mastoiditis, the prognosis is favorable, in the absence of treatment there may be a lesion of the brain and paresis of the facial nerve.
Labyrinthitis
  • Medicia treatment - antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic drugs, betagistic;
  • surgery - removal of pus from the middle ear, opening the cavity of the labyrinth, the removal of pus and drainage.
- Treatment is carried out within a few weeks.
  • The forecast for timely treatment is generally favorable;
  • The vestibular function is reduced gradually;
  • Possible complications in the form of inflammation of brain shells.
Headowing, deafness
  • treatment of inflammatory diseases of the ear;
  • termination of the exposure of isotoxic ( harmful to ear ) Substances ( Some antibiotics, furosemide, industrial and household poisons );
  • removal of ear tumors;
  • physiotherapy;
  • Using auditory devices.
- The duration of treatment depends on the cause and severity of hearing loss.
  • With timely treatment, 50% of patients have a favorable hearing restoration forecast.
Otosclerosis
  • use of hearing aids;
  • prosthetics of stirrups ( Hearing bone ).
- Medical treatment methods are currently absent.
  • It is possible to restore the hearing only during the prosthetics of the tears or with the help of hearing aids.
Meniery's disease
  • Non-media treatment - cancellation of drugs that violate the function of the vestibular apparatus, exercises for training the vestibular apparatus;
  • Medicia treatment - Atropine, Platifillan intramuscularly, diuretic, Betagistein;
  • surgery - dissection of nerves, regulating pressure in the maze, creating a slit through which the extra lymph is removed in the middle ear, the destruction of the labyrinth.
- The course of treatment is always individual for each patient.
  • The disease is not dangerous for life, but seriously worsens its quality.
Vestibular neuronit
  • Non-media treatment - Exercises for training the vestibular apparatus;
  • Medicia treatment - Dramina, Betagistin, Antibiotics, Antiwheat Preparations ( Cerucal ).
- The course of treatment is always individual for each patient.
  • The prognosis is favorable, in some cases the vestibular function is restored slowly.
Benign positional dizziness
  • Non-media treatment - Exercises for training the vestibular apparatus;
  • surgery - sealing of the affected semicircular canal, removal of vestibular nerve sprigs, laser destruction of the labyrinth.
- The course of treatment is always individual for each patient.
  • The prognosis is favorable, it is possible to achieve complete recovery.
Sanding syndrome (Sea disease, kinetosis )
  • Non-media treatment - Do not eat before traveling or traveling, take a seat closer to the transport center;
  • Medical treatment - Drum, Betagistein, Cerukal.
- preparations that improve the function of the vestibular apparatus ( Dramina, Betagisin ), and antiemetic drugs are accepted before the trip.
Tumors and foreign bodies
  • Foreign bodies are removed during the otoscopy;
  • For treatment of tumors, surgical treatment, radiation, thermal or chemotherapeutic effects are used.
- The course of treatment is always individual for each patient.
  • The forecast for the foreign body of the outer auditory passage in the absence of damage to the eardrum is favorable;
  • The prognosis of tumors depends on their species.
  Doctor Lor

Modern medicine is highly specialized, his doctor is engaged in each organ and system, therefore the question remains quite relevant, Lor is what kind of doctor that he treats and how is his profession? This is a doctor involved in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the ear, throat and nose. In the spacious, it is often called the doctor's ear-throat, and patients who have problems with these bodies, are often interested in the ENT doctor as it is called differently? Official medicine of such a doctor calls a otolaryngologist, a laryotorinologist or an otorinolaryngologist.

How is an ENT doctor called a different way?

Since these systems are inextricably linked with each other, they are combined into one direction, in which the ENT doctor works or, as it is correctly called the otolaryngologist. The name of ENT is the usual abbreviation, which form the first letters of the term "laryngotorinologist", which from Greek means:

  • "Larin" - Gortan, throat;
  • "From" - ear;
  • "Reno" - nose.

As you can see from the name, the otolaryngologist is engaged in pathological processes of ears, throat and nose. However, in this case, it is not just said about three separate bodies, but about the three most complex systems of the human body.

LOR doctor - what treats?

Patients of all ages come to the otorinolaryngologist for reception, because it is in his competence - the treatment of a variety of diseases and disorders of the ear, throat and nose. Among the most common pathologies with which they are treated for this doctor, you can allocate:

  • laryngitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis and other throat diseases;
  • ear infections;
  • acute and chronic sinusites, rhinitis;
  • allergy;
  • Ear injuries, nose, throat;
  • reduction of hearing;
  • nose bleeding;
  • problems with voice and swallowing;
  • frequent dizziness;
  • Malignant and benign formations in the neck and head.

You must necessarily need an ENT or what a doctor is called correctly, a otolaryngologist, if there are such symptoms:

  • hoped nose breathing;
  • mucous, mucous-purulent, bleeding from nasal moves;
  • disorders, hearing, swallowing;
  • pain in the throat, ear, nose and forehead areas;
  • frequent nose bleeding;
  • An increase in regional lymph nodes (submandibular, ear).

Applying special tools, the otolaryngologist will conduct a thorough inspection and will give all the necessary recommendations regarding the treatment and prevention of the development of the disease.

Reception of the otolaryngologist in the "ABC Clinic"

The first thing to be done in suspected Lor pathology or already with a diagnosed diagnosis is to consult a competent, experienced and competent otolaryngologist who will conduct a thorough examination and prescribe the most efficient treatment. Such ENT doctors work in the "ABC Clinic". The powerful medical and diagnostic base, an integrated approach to diagnosis and treatment, the use of advanced equipment and new generation preparations, ensure the achievement of a better result, even with the most complex LOR pathologies.

OtolaryngologistOtoidolaryngology (otolaryngology) is a section of medicine and medical specialty. It is based on the diagnosis / therapy / prevention of LOR organs. Practicing doctors are called otolaryngologists or abbreviated by Lor Doctors. What you need to know about the direction, with what pathologies does the doctor work, what to expect from diagnosis and therapy?

Otorinolaryngology

This is the area of ​​medicine that specializes in the diagnosis / treatment / prevention of the pathologies of the ear, throat, nose, head and neck. The discipline itself was formed in the XIX century, which fucked not only overall practice, but also surgery. The practicing otolaryngologist owns knowledge in the field of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, neurology and bacteriology.

Lor organs level the effect of the pathogenic environment, are responsible for normal breathing, hearing and other vital processes. It is this group of organs most often suffers from seasonal sharp respiratory diseases (ORZ). Ear, nose, throat and larynx are closely connected to each other, so the infection of one body is immediately distributed to others.

In addition to infectious, bacteriological diseases and mechanical injuries, the otolaryngologist is treated with allergic manifestations - a runny nose, cough and other. Also, the doctor's competence includes the elimination of snoring, unpleasant smell of mouth (if it is associated with the pathologies of the upper respiratory tract) and the normalization of hearing.

Very often the beginning of serious ENT diseases people confuse with ordinary ages or fatigue after a long working day. Follow your own organism and regularly attend your doctor to prevent complications or launch of irreversible processes.

Professional duties of the doctor

Otolaryngologist works with ear pathologies, throat, nose, neck and heads. The spectrum of diseases begins with a conventional runny nose, and ends with cancer neoplasms in the larynx. The doctor corrects the problems with the voice, the wrong swallowing mechanism, the ringing in the ears or the complete loss of hearing. Also, a specialist is engaged in allergic pathologies. He finds out the causes of the disease, creates an individual therapeutic course, informs the patient about the peculiarities of its condition and recommends that allergy prevention methods are recommended. In a separate category, otolaryngology surgeons are isolated. They adjust the anomalies of the ENT organs: the curvature of the nasal partition, the deformation of the ear, the omission of the century, the cleft of the sky.

Diseases with which the doctor works
Organ / system Pathology
Nasophack / Rota cavity Adenoids
Frontit
Acute tonsillitis (angina)
Atresia / Sines of the oral cavity
Sinoute, Aerosinusitis
Etmoite
Hematoma
Hypertrophy skynote almonds
Pilot abscess
The presence of foreign tel
Laryngitis (regardless of form)
Deformation of the nasal partition
Bleeding
Pharyngitis
Rhinitis
Tuberculosis Larry
Hymorit
PARERS / PALUAL GORSTAN
The presence of polyps
Head organs Evstachitis
The presence of foreign tel
Pilot abscess
Aphonia
Perforation of the eardrum
Loss of hearing
Labyrinthitis
Etmoite
Mastoiditis
Meniery's disease
Cochlear rhinitis
All forms otita
Sulfur plug
Otomikosis
Otosclerosis
Respiratory system Scleroma
The presence of foreign tel
Stridor

Who are the symptoms to contact Laura?

Reception at otolaryngologistOtolaryngologist is one of the most frequently visited doctors. It is the ENT-organs that are the first to suffer from both ordinary ARS and from more serious pathologies. Consultation of the doctor is required with any changes in the functions of the ears / throat / nose - the difficulty of breathing, discharge from the nose, discomfort or pain in the temples, jaws, the root or back of the nose. Sweets of soft tissues of lips, eyelids or cheeks, painting pain in the eye, forehead temples, the increase in lymph nodes is also the cause of an unscheduled visit to the doctor.

With standard symptoms of ORZ or ARVI (headache, general ailment, apathy), you need to undergo primary diagnostics from a general practitioner. It will determine the patient's condition, prescribes therapy, and as needed he will write down the direction to Laura. Directly to the otolaryngologist should be treated with severe pain, loss of consciousness, hallucinations, elevated temperatures (up to 40 °), nasal bleeding, skin rash.

Which symptoms should be removed to the lore of the child? One of the most frequent reasons for the appeal to the children's doctor is the growing of the sky or litty almonds. Pathology is most often evolving precisely in kids, and untimely diagnosis and therapy can lead to deformation of the cartilage / bones of the larynx, the oral cavity. In order to notice the problem in time - drive a child for consultation to the otolaryngologist at least 2 times a year. With general intoxication, pain in the ENT organs, high sensitivity is recommended to contact a specialist unscheduled.

Diagnostic features

For diagnostics use generally crystal basic, laboratory and instrumental methods. The diagnosis is determined by the patient complaints and the specifics of the affected organ. For example, when pain in the ears, the doctor conducts palpation of the outdoor ear and adjacent regions. With the help of ear funnel, ENT examines the outer hearing pass, the eardrum. The combination of these methods is called otoscopy. After the otoscopy, the doctor starts checking the hearing. It analyzes the perception of the whisper and the usual speech by the patient, if necessary, uses Tam. To obtain more accurate information, conduct an audiometry, impedanceometry, thymponogram, an outacastic emission.

To check the vestibular dysfunctions of ENT uses the physiological research method. The patient should become on his feet, tightly move the feet, stretch your arms forward, close your eyes and alternately concerned to a number of external organs (touch the nose with his left hand or right to the elbow of the left hand).

The diagnosis of nose pathologies begins with palpation and external inspection. Then the otolaryngologist studies the nasal cavity through the nasal moves using a special mirror. The combination of methods is called rhinoscopy. Also use rear rosicopy - the cavity is examined with the help of the nasopharynk mirror and spatula. The state of the pharyngoscopy is diagnosed. The lower part of the pharynx is inspected by a gangny mirror, additionally use a spatula, laryngoscope and autonomous lighting (for laryngoscopy). ENT also prescribes radiography and computed tomography for detailed inspection of the affected organ.

Features of therapy and prevention

Based on the diagnosis, the doctor is developing a therapeutic course. In otolaryngology, both conservative and operational treatments are used. Under surgery implies the removal of LOR-organ tumors, excision of adenoids or implantation recovery of the hearing function. For the operation, three varieties of surgery are used: endoscopic, radio wave and shawl (device with interchangeable cutting nozzles). The selection of one or another method depends on the individual characteristics of the patient, the disease, the degree of damage to the body. In other cases, drug therapy, nutrition correction, lifestyle and regular rehabilitation manipulations have a physician.

The prevention of ENT diseases is based on the general strengthening of immunity. To do this, handle the body, abandon the bad habits, to engage in physical activity, regulate the diet and at the timely attend doctors. Also should not forget about personal hygiene. It not only prevents the development of infectious foci, but maintains the state of the teeth, ears, oral cavity.

Article author:

Furmanova Elena Alexandrovna

Specialty: Pediatrician doctor, infectious, allergist immunologist .

Common experience: 7 years .

Education: 2010, SibGMU, Pediatric, Pediatrics .

We will be grateful if you use the buttons:

With the problems of the patient's throat, the runny nose and the stuffy ears, perhaps everything came across.

With such pathological conditions, they usually appeal for help from Laura. And many are interested in the question, which is included in the competence of this specialist, and as ENT is called differently. Let's try to figure out the specifics of this profession.

Diseases that treats ENT

Usually, encountered at least once with this specialist, especially in the case of serious pathology, a person already remembers the full and correct name of Laura - otolaryngologist .

This specialist is in demand in both children's and adult practices, because from the physiological point of view of the pathology of ENT organs is very often found. It is rather such a feature of the structure of the human body, since it is these organs that perform a protective function, preventing viruses and bacteria deep into the body.

Otherwise, ENT is referred to as a otolaryngologist, and this specialist explores several organs at once - ears, a nasopharynk, throat that function in one system. People are accustomed to calling this narrow specialist as Ear-throat . It is the name of this doctor that children and even medical workers prefer to use this doctor. But still, faster and easier to say the abbreviation, that is why on all signs in hospitals you can see the name of ENT.

Notice, even because of the most banal inflammation inside the body, the development of the pathological condition in all these three bodies is possible. It is for this reason that there is a separate branch in medicine, which is exploring the pathology of the nasopharynx and hearing organs.

Nevertheless, not every person knows how the doctor studying the questions of the pathologies of the throat, ears or nose is called. More than the pathology of ENT organs are inherent in childhood, but adults are often sick of various diseases from the field of otolaryngology.

The most common pathological conditions are:

  • adenoids;
  • formation of polyps in the nose;
  • various forms of rhinitis;
  • tonsillitis in acute or chronic form;
  • Ear injuries under the influence of mechanical or chemical stimuli, as well as traumatization of nasopharynx, throat and neighboring organs;
  • the swelling of the mucous membranes as a result of allergic reactions;
  • purulent otitis;
  • Abscess throat or ears;
  • fungal pathologies of the inner ear and the hymic meloders;
  • Diseases of infectious etiology, to which influenza, ARVI, Diphthery, Cort and so on.

Etiology and pathogenesis of diseases

There are many reasons why a person may encounter diseases of the ENT organs, especially in childhood. However, experts identify several main factors that can provoke pathology:

  • weak immune defense;
  • damage to the mucous membranes mechanically, which may result in further infection;
  • infectious and viral agents;
  • negative impact of external factors;
  • mycosis lesions;
  • Allergic reactions and regular contact with allergens.

Mostly the disease of these bodies almost immediately make themselves felt, and in the absence of therapy there are complications.

In the clinics and hospitals, the otolaryngologist, that is, ENT, the responsibility of which includes the primary inspection, should conduct additional research. Also, a otolaryngologist, he is Lor, he also ear-throat-nose conducts certain physiotherapeutic procedures in order to therapy of certain diseases and relief of symptoms in the patient.

Laura

Laura - These are just an abbreviation, which formed from the first letters of the full professional name of this specialist - laryngotorinologist .

The very name of the laryotorinologist was formed from three words, by the way the ancient Greek, which translated and mean the throat, ear and nose.

Otolaryngologist

Of course, in everyday life, either abbreviation, or the folk name - the ear-throat-nose. Who is such a otolaryngologist?

Everything is simple here. This is a specialist who works in the field of otolaryngology. That is, studying the problems and pathology of such organs as the throat, ears and the nasal cavity.

Finally

Friends! Summing up, it is important to say the following.

If you come across the concept of a otolaryngologist or even a laryngotorinologist, then do not be afraid. We are talking about all the famous Lore.

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