What is civil society (information for the exam)

What is civil society (information for the exam)

I paid a lot of attention in my articles to the state (see the list at the end of the publication) and left out the question of civil society. Therefore, before the exam (at the request of my regular readers) I decided to highlight this issue. It is studied in the "Politics" section. It occupies position 4.6 in the codifier. "Civil Society and the State".

What is civil society?

Screenshot from the author's teaching materials
Screenshot from the author's teaching materials

When compiling the definition in task 25, do not forget about the specific differences of civil society (highlighted in the box).

For its emergence, certain prerequisites are necessary, which must develop in all spheres of public life:

Screenshot from the author's teaching materials. Table 1
Screenshot from the author's teaching materials. Table 1

These positions can be useful when writing an essay (task number 29). There are a lot of essays on this issue. For example, I chose one:

Theme for an essay from the open bank of FIPI
Theme for an essay from the open bank of FIPI
Advice: remember this phrase. She is the key to solving the tasks of the first part.

Because developed civil society is possible only under a democratic regime, an efficiently working market economy and in a really existing rule of law.

What institutions are included in civil society?

To realize their interests and needs, people create non-political institutions :

Screenshot from the author's teaching materials. Scheme 1
Screenshot from the author's teaching materials. Scheme 1

They develop outside the framework and without government intervention. Each of them is associated with a specific area of ​​human relations, which allows us to understand the structure and mechanism of action of civil society.

New institutions may emerge from time to time. They are a response to the challenges of our time and the newly emerging needs of society. For example, in our country in 2005 the "Public Chamber of the Russian Federation" was created.

What is the structure of civil society?

Since civil society is designed to help a person meet his needs, each of his institutions can be correlated with a specific group of these needs and make up the structure of civil society.

According to Professor R.T. Mukhaeva, a hierarchical system can be built from needs:

Screenshot from the author's teaching materials. Scheme 2
Screenshot from the author's teaching materials. Scheme 2

The first level is traditionally occupied by basic needs, then socio-cultural, and at the top of the hierarchy are political and cultural needs.

To meet basic needs, a person gets a job or becomes an entrepreneur, creating his own business.

Parents take care of our health, we get information about cultural achievements from the media.

To defend our political views and interests, we can participate in the work of political clubs or become party members. Through the parties, civil society "connects" with the state and brings to its attention the needs and aspirations of the people.

What are the functions of civil society?

Screenshot from the author's teaching materials. Scheme 3
Screenshot from the author's teaching materials. Scheme 3

Civil society has a wide range of responsibilities. Most of them are aimed at controlling the activities of the state and curbing its aspirations for domination over society.

Advice : all points of this article (provided they are affirmatively worded) can become elements of a detailed plan in task number 28.

Good luck on the exam! Thanks for reading!

P.S. You can read about the state:

"How to deal with the forms of the state ";

"How to determine the form of government "

"Government: Another Form? How to deal with all this before the exam ?

What is civil society (information for the exam)
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Civil society Is a set of social relations, formal and informal structures that provide conditions for a person's political activity, the satisfaction and implementation of various needs and interests of the individual and social groups and associations. A developed civil society is the most important prerequisite for building the rule of law and its equal partner. [one]

Signs of civil society

[source not specified 323 days ]

  • the presence in society of free owners of the means of production;
  • developed democracy;
  • legal protection of citizens;
  • a certain level of civic culture, a high educational level of the population;
  • the most complete provision of human rights and freedoms;
  • self management;
  • competition between the structures that form it and different groups of people;
  • freely forming public opinion and pluralism;
  • strong social policy of the state
  • mixed economy
  • a large share in the society of the middle class.

Civil society concept

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7 February 2012


In the social sciences, the following main approaches to defining the essence of civil society are distinguished: as an opposition to anarchy; as the opposite of the church; as a complex of social relations opposed to the state; as a specific phenomenon of Western civilization. The history of the development of its concept in Western socio-political thought testifies to the difficulties of the formation of civil society.

The formation of the concept of civil society dates back to the second half of the 18th - early 19th centuries. The philosophy of the Enlightenment, German classical philosophy, in the writings of whose representatives begins to realize the need for a clear distinction between the state and civil society (as a sphere covering all the variety of social ties that lies between the individual and the state), gave priority in the interaction of the state and civil society to the state (especially Hegel ).

Marx dealt with "civil society" even in his work "On the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Law." It was there that he established that "civil society" is a private society, that is, a society of individuals and private interests, a bourgeois society. That is, it is a predatory society of "war of all against all." And in his work "On the Jewish Question" Marx took apart these "rights" to pieces - as he wrote, "the rights of a member of civil society, that is, an egoistic person, separated from the human essence and community ”. In German Ideology, Marx and Engels also pointed out why a "civil society" can arise only in a bourgeois society: because this required that personal interests develop to the level of class, that is, that a "class for oneself" was formed. [2]

In the philosophy and sociology of Marxism, as well as in most modern political and sociological theories, on the contrary, the priority of civil society over the state is affirmed, and one of the most important conditions for social progress is seen in its expansion and strengthening. [source not specified 323 days ]

An important characteristic of civil society is the achievement of a high level of self-organization and self-regulation of society. Civil society is a system of socio-economic and political relations based on self-organization, functioning in the legal regime of social justice, freedom, satisfaction of material and spiritual needs of a person as the highest value of civil society.

Philosophical postulates

  • Civil society Is a non-state type society. [3]

In the modern sense, civil society is a society with developed economic, political, legal and cultural relations between people, independent of the state, but interacting with it. [source not specified 323 days ]

  • Civil society Is a society of people of high social, cultural, moral, economic status, creating developed legal relations with the state.
  • Civil society has a complex structure, which includes: economic, economic, ethnic, religious and legal relations. Civil ties are relationships of competition and solidarity between legally equal partners.
  • Condition of occurrence civil society is the emergence of all citizens of society of economic independence on the basis of private property. Civil society Is a society of civilized market relations.
  • An important characteristic civil society is to achieve a high level of self-organization and self-regulation of society.
  • Civil society organized after the division of spheres of influence between the state and the citizen. The narrowing of the total power of the state is carried out through the introduction of inalienable human rights in certain non-political categories. The categories of inalienable rights are the right to work (economy), to national cultural values ​​(culture), to the performance of religious rites, to freedom of exchange of information, freedom of self-realization. All disputes between citizens are resolved by an independent court.

Functions of civil society

Civil society performs a number of important social functions:

  • On the basis of legality, it ensures the protection of private spheres of life of a person and a citizen from unjustified strict regulation of the state and other political structures.
  • Mechanisms of public self-government are being created and developed on the basis of civil society associations.
  • Civil society is one of the most important and powerful levers in the system of "checks and balances", the desire of political power to absolute domination. It protects citizens and their associations from unlawful interference in their activities of state power and thereby contributes to the formation and consolidation of the democratic organs of the state, its entire political system. To fulfill this function, he has a lot of means: active participation in election campaigns and referendums, protests or support for certain demands, great opportunities in shaping public opinion, in particular, with the help of independent media and communications.
  • Institutions and organizations of civil society are called upon to provide real guarantees of human rights and freedoms, equal access to participation in state and public affairs.
  • Civil society also performs the function of social control over its members. It is independent of the state, has the means and sanctions with which it can force the individual to comply with social norms, to ensure the socialization and education of citizens.
  • Civil society also has a communication function. A democratic society manifests a variety of interests. The widest range of these interests is the result of the freedoms that a citizen has in a democracy. A democratic state is called upon to satisfy the interests and needs of its citizens as much as possible. However, in conditions of economic pluralism, these interests are so numerous, so diverse and differentiated that the state power has practically no channels of information about all these interests. The task of civil society institutions and organizations is to inform the state about the specific interests of citizens, the satisfaction of which is possible only by the forces of the state.
  • Civil society performs a stabilizing function with its institutions and organizations. It creates solid structures on which all social life is supported.

see also

Sources of



Civil society - a set of non-state relations and organizations.

Civil society is formed not in all countries, but only in those where democracy exists with its respect for human rights and freedoms. In countries where the state tries to control the lives of people as much as possible, civil society does not function and, if it does exist, then in its very beginnings.

Civil society is like a separate sphere of society, where each of its participants is a citizen of the country who is willing and able to influence people's lives and change society for the better.

The easiest way to explain what civil society is through examples.

Imagine that a large rubbish heap has formed next to your house, and some hooligans have written obscene words in the houses for the kids on the playground. What reaction can be found to such a nuisance?

The first reaction: a local resident walks past the heap and thinks to himself: “Wherever the mayor's office is looking! How long we, residents, will have to wait before the city services arrive and deal with this disgrace! "

The consequence of this reaction will be an increase in the size of the trash heap over the next few weeks and the desolation of the playground (mothers will stop driving their babies to it). Nevertheless, after a month or two, or even half a year, after a planned check, the mayor's office will in fact notice the problem and solve it. Or it won't decide. It depends on which city we are talking about (it will decide in Moscow, but, for example, in a poor provincial city, there are doubts).

The second reaction: a local resident walks past the heap and thinks: “I don’t like this garbage heap, and I don’t want to see it next to my house (he takes out his phone, takes pictures, writes a complaint to the mayor's office). My children are walking on this playground, I don't want them to know such words (he takes out his phone, takes a photo, writes a complaint to the mayor's office). ”Suppose we are talking not about Moscow, but about a provincial poor city. The mayor's office saw the complaint, but did not react in any way. Then the local will go to the store, buy paint and paint over obscene words in the toddler's house. He cannot remove the trash heap alone, so he will organize a meeting of the residents of the house and discuss the problem with them. Residents will agree to go out together on Saturday to the yard to remove the pile on their own. Residents will dump money on a car that will take the garbage to the landfill.

In the first situation, it did not even occur to the person that he could solve the problem on his own. He immediately shifted responsibility to the city authorities.

In the second situation, the resident, realizing that the authorities would not be able to cope, took action to solve the problem on his own without the help of the authorities. Moreover, he organized other people for joint action. The first inhabitant clearly lives in a country where there is no civil society. And here is the second resident from the country where it is.

What is the essence of such a society?

There are some examples of the manifestation of civil society that characterize the relationship between the individual and the state:

  • the interests of society and the state cannot be higher than the interests of the individual;
  • the highest value is the freedom of the citizen;
  • there is an inalienable right of a citizen to private property;
  • no one has the right to interfere in the personal affairs of a citizen if he does not violate the law;
  • citizens enter into an informal agreement among themselves on the creation of a civil society, which is a protective layer between them and the state.

The main difference between civil society is that people are free to organize themselves into professional or interest groups, and their activities are protected from government interference.

examples of manifestation of civil society

The main features of civil society

The main features of civil society are:

1. Guarantee of legal protection of citizens;

2. Availability and active promotion of democratic principles;

3. Pluralism and freely forming opinions of citizens;

4. Social policy of the state;

5. Competition between civil society structures;

6. The presence in civil society of free owners of property, as well as the means of production;

7. The predominant middle class;

8. Diverse market economy.

Structural elements

    1. In the economic sphere - the implementation of non-state relations at the enterprise; the creation of partnerships and cooperatives; uniting people in organizations, associations of their own free will.
    1. In the socio-political sphere - the division of the population into stratification classes and groups; family, represented by the reproduction of the population; social and political movements; pluralism of different groups; the presence of local government bodies; formation and manifestation of public opinion; MEDIA.
    1. In the spiritual sphere - the formation of ideological and national values, freedom; expressing personal opinions; independence of free associations and organizations from the state.
  1. Political and legal sphere - pluralism; the presence of opposition and current legislation.

Civil society prioritizes the rights and freedom of the individual, to improve his life: the right to life; free enterprise; the right to happiness; equality of all individuals; the presence of the rule of law; formation of equal chances for advancement in the economic and political spheres.


  1. Compliance by an individual with accepted norms in society, socialization and involvement of the population in public life.
  2. Protecting individuals and organizations from interference.
  3. Establishment of democratic bodies.

The political regime determines the relationship between the population and the government: under totalitarianism, the state takes control of absolutely all spheres of life, where there is no room for the vastness of civil society; under an authoritarian regime, civil society appears unenlightened and compressed; democratic regime - the constitution forms the conditions for the functioning of a civil and legal society.

A legal society is not created without a civil society, because only mature individuals form rational forms of life.

Constitutional state - a type of political power, where rule belongs to the rule of law, human rights and freedom. Law is a measure of an individual's freedom if the interests of a person serve the state and their implementation appears fair.


  • the presence in society of free owners of the means of production;
  • developed democracy;
  • legal protection of citizens;
  • a certain level of civic culture, a high educational level of the population;
  • the most complete provision of human rights and freedoms;
  • self management;
  • competition between the structures that form it and different groups of people;
  • freely forming public opinion and pluralism;
  • strong social policy of the state
  • mixed economy
  • a large share in the society of the middle class.


1) Communities of people:

  • political parties and lobbying organizations (committees, commissions, councils) created under the government
  • socio-political organizations and movements (environmental, anti-war, human rights)
  • business unions, consumer associations, charities, cooperatives, rental collectives, joint stock companies
  • scientific and cultural organizations, sports societies
  • municipal communes and other self-government bodies at the place of residence and work (voter associations, political clubs)
  • independent media
  • church
  • a family

2) Relationships between the components of society that have a non-state and non-political character family ties, professional, economic, religious and other relations 3) Special space free manifestation of people, which is protected from interference by the state and other forces. This network of groups and associations of citizens functions daily to create conditions for the self-realization of individuals and groups, to express and satisfy their daily needs, while restraining the state's desire to concentrate political dominance.

Essential features and signs

The concept of "civil society" is one of the most important concepts of political science and modern social science in general. Revealing its content is not easy. Any complex and multifaceted social phenomenon is rather difficult to characterize in an exhaustive way in a short definition, listing and linking together in one definition all its essential features. Therefore, it seems legitimate to first highlight those most essential features of civil society on which there is agreement in the modern scientific community.

The essential features (features) of civil society include the following characteristics.

1. The presence of freedom in all its fundamental manifestations: personal and collective freedom, the formation and activities of public associations and organizations, as well as in all major areas of life (economic, political, social, spiritual freedom).

2. Property as a basic condition for personal freedom (primarily economic): the presence of property at the disposal of people (individual, private, as well as various forms of collective property) constitutes the economic basis of civil society.

3. Individual freedom: a free person and an independent (autonomous) citizen who has all the full rights, freedoms and responsibility; providing for each member of society the opportunity to independently choose the sphere of their activities and the free development of the individual; free citizen as the basis of civil society.

4. Developed personality, amateur performance: a high level of intellectual and moral and psychological development of members of society, their ability to act independently, realize their needs and interests, set and achieve goals; high political culture.

5. Diversity of interests: the presence in society of a developed system of interests (private, individual, group, special, general, personal, collective), as well as conditions for their implementation in the process of their mutual struggle (competition, conflict) and cooperation (agreement, consensus, partnership).

6. Institutionalization of interests: the presence of formalized structures, organizations and institutions that unite people on a voluntary basis and contribute to the expression and implementation of the diverse interests of members of society.

7. Developed system of law: effective legislation and strict implementation of laws; ordering, on the basis of law, of various forms of people's initiative (their individual, autonomous activity, as well as the activities of their associations and organizations); high legal culture.

8. Legal equality of citizens: their equality before the law; mandatory regulation of relationships between individuals, as well as groups, organizations, institutions and all other elements of civil society through civil law.

9. Contractual principles in the settlement of conflicts, reaching agreement and general civil consensus aimed at integrating society in the interests of all its members.

10. Self-organization and self-government: the presence of a sphere of free interaction and realization of interests, a sphere of relations between their sovereign subjects and carriers (individuals and organizations), which is outside the direct influence and control of the state. Institutionally, civil society acts as a set of nonpolitical and political independent organizations that express the diverse interests of members of society (and their associations) and implement them independently of the state.

11. Interaction with the state: without the state there are no citizens, without citizens there is no civil society; the state provides constitutional consolidation, guarantees and protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, his legitimate interests, ensures the effectiveness of the entire system of law, the execution of contracts, the achievement of national agreement on the basis of common interests.

12. Civil responsibility: the inalienable rights and freedoms of a citizen imply his responsibility for the preservation of similar rights and freedoms in relation to other citizens, their associations, organizations and institutions of civil society, responsibility for the implementation of laws and contractual obligations assumed, for reaching a general civil consensus, strengthening the rule of law, maintaining the unity and integrity of the state.

13. Democracy as an all-encompassing system that ensures the implementation of fundamental human and civil rights and freedoms, as a political structure of society in which the sovereignty of each of its members is realized, their ability to participate in the formation and change of state power, in making the most important political decisions that determine the development of the state and society as a whole.

Ideal features and reality. The listed features of civil society express its essential features. At the same time, taken together, they rather represent some ideal-typical characteristics that are difficult to apply to a specific society. In the modern world, hardly even the most advanced countries possess a complete set of the listed features at their highest stage of development. Consequently, the presence of these features in a particular society serves as a criterion for the country's entry into the path of building a civil society, the highest stage of their development is a guideline and goal of moving forward, and the measure of their implementation in a particular country characterizes the degree of development of civil society at a certain point in time. It is quite obvious that in different countries the degree of development of civil society can be significantly different. The most complete development of civil society has reached in the advanced Western countries with long and strong traditions of democracy and market economy, with a high legal culture of society.

The principles of civil society. The development of civil society in a particular country requires significant efforts on the part of the state, public organizations and institutions, all members of society, which should be aimed at consistent and fullest implementation of the principles of civil society life: individual freedom; legal equality of citizens; amateur performance of each member of society as a citizen; constitutional consolidation, guarantees and protection of inalienable human and civil rights; protecting his legitimate interests; self-organization and self-government; effective interaction between civil society and the state; democratic political system; pluralism of interests and striving for agreement. The implementation of these principles will contribute to the improvement of civil society and its development to a level at which it will most fully and effectively fulfill its purpose and functions in society.

  • The concept, essence and legal nature of civil society as a complex social system The rule of law can exist only where and when and where civil society exists. It is another matter what exactly civil society is. After all, this is by no means something that is formal ...

Society as a system of institutions

Society is, in fact, a system of institutions, relations between people and groups.

Certain ties arise between social groups and within them. Over time, some connections die off, others persist and develop. Society organizes the most important relations, useful patterns are repeated from generation to generation - these are social institutions.

Through changing institutions, society itself changes - either through evolution and reforms, or through revolutions that change all key institutions.

Thus, modern society differs from medieval society not only in technology, but also in institutions: capitalist relations have replaced feudal relations, the institution of monarchy has been replaced by democratic institutions, etc. Some of the accepted models disappear completely with the development of society: for example, the institution of blood feud, which is being replaced by the police and the court.

The formation of a social institution is called the process of institutionalization. Institutionalization is the ordering of social relations, the formation of stable models and rules. The institutionalization of science is its transformation from the activity of individual enthusiasts into an ordered system of institutes, academies, academic titles and degrees, scientific publications, etc.

Structure and institutions of civil society

Unlike the state apparatus, where there is a strict hierarchy, the structure of civil society is built horizontally .

This means that there are no major and minor associations here.

Universities, for example, are just as important as local governments and volunteer organizations.


The structure consists of institutions civil society and covers three spheres of public life.

  1. Socio-political In this area, citizens are most active. Institutions include the family, self-government bodies, public organizations and movements, political parties, non-state media.
  2. The economic The scope includes associations and associations of entrepreneurs, cooperatives, companies. Although some lawyers believe that civil society and business should not be equated.
  3. Spiritual .And again, the list of institutions includes the family, non-state media. They are joined by the church, universities and research centers, creative associations, cultural institutions.


In modern conditions civil society acts as diversity not mediated the state of mutual relations of free and equal individuals in the conditions of the market and democratic legal statehood. Unlike state structures, civil society is dominated not by vertical (hierarchical), but by horizontal ties - relations of competition and solidarity between legally free and equal partners.

The share of doctors decreased by 1.1 percentage points. The proportion of doctors aged 60-69 has increased the most. The share of doctors aged 50-59 has increased the most. The share of women in the total number of candidates in% in municipal elections is the highest in comparison with other regions in Prague. A high proportion of women candidates in municipal councils is also found in stí nad and Liberec regions. These three regions also had the highest proportion of women elected to municipal councils, but their proportion was lower.

Therefore, the success of women in terms of moving from the list of candidates to the municipal council is quite large. As with the increase in the proportion of elected representatives in municipalities, the proportion of women candidates is increasing. The share of candidates on municipal councils in most regions has increased more than the share of elected representatives. The biggest difference between the increase in the proportion of representatives and candidates in municipalities is found in Prague, when the proportion of candidates increased more than the proportion of deputies.

В economic sphere the structural elements of civil society are non-state enterprises: cooperatives, companies, associations and other voluntary economic associations of citizens, created by them on their own initiative.

The socio-political sphere of civil society includes:

  • family as a defining social unit of civil society, in which individual and public interests intersect;
  • public, socio-political, political parties and movements expressing the diversity of interests of various groups of civil society;
  • bodies of public self-government at the place of residence and work;
  • a mechanism for identifying, forming and expressing public opinion, as well as resolving social conflicts;
  • non-state media.

In this area, the practice of institutionalizing interests arising in society and expressing them in a non-violent, civilized form, within the framework of the constitution and the laws of the state, is taking shape.

Prague has seen the greatest efforts by women to get into leadership positions, but the actual success of women in elections is less than in other regions. Graph 5 Number of stellar urban areas. In line with the increasing proportion of women on candidate lists and elected councils, the number of old-fashioned districts is growing. Although the mayor is elected from the city council and carries out the tasks assigned to him by the council, he is nevertheless an important representative of the municipality, and the increasing proportion of old-fashioned districts in the city council indicates a greater interest of women in decision-making.

Spiritual realm civil society presupposes freedom of thought, speech, real opportunities to publicly express their opinion; independence and independence of scientific, creative and other associations from government agencies.

In general, civil society gives priority to human rights and freedoms, improving the quality of his life. This implies:

The mayor is mainly located in medium-sized urban areas. The Center for Civic Education is a supranational institution with the aim of long-term support for the conceptual development of civic education in the Czech Republic. The mission of the Citizenship Education Center is to support citizens of all ages to better navigate the public space and participate more effectively in civic life.

Civic education helps people live in a democracy and defend democracy against totalitarian systems. Some analogy of such education is being implemented in all traditional Western democracies and in the Czech Republic, in addition to professional and interesting education, the third component of the Strategy for Lifelong Learning is the third pillar. Civic education is based, among other things, on the historical experience that without an active citizenry, democratic institutions are empty shells.

  • recognition of the natural human right to life, free activity and happiness;
  • recognition of the equality of citizens in a uniform framework for all laws;
  • approval of the rule of law, subjecting its activities to the law;
  • creation of equality of chances for all subjects of economic and socio-political activity.

Civil society closely contacts and interacts with the rule of law, the main functions of which are as follows:

Among other things, it also significantly develops civic consciousness so that people become freer and not subject to various types of manipulation, political disappointment or political extremism. Civic education naturally raises topics that are relevant and the subject of political debate. Therefore, any educational activity can only make sense if they are non-partisan.

Sources of

  • http://egevmeste.ru/grazhdanskoe-obschestvo-i-pravovoe-gosudarstvo.html
  • https://FB.ru/article/232255/grajdanskoe-obschestvo-primeryi-stran-primeryi-stanovleniya-proyavleniya-grajdanskogo-obschestva-v-rossii
  • http://www.nado5.ru/e-book/grazhdanskoe-obshchestvo-i-pravovoe-gosudarstvo
  • https://bingoschool.ru/manual/46/
  • https://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/82612
  • https://socialtutors.ru/egeobsch/politicege/92-46-grazhdanskoe-obschestvo-i-gosudarstvo.html
  • https://studref.com/435215/politologiya/grazhdanskoe_obschestvo
  • https://www.anews.com/p/108657945-chto-takoe-socialnyj-institut-chto-znachit-instituty-grazhdanskogo-obshhestva/
  • https://KtoNaNovenkogo.ru/voprosy-i-otvety/grazhdanskoe-obshchestvo-chto-ehto-takoe-priznaki-funkcii-instituty.html
  • https://beketov-fond.ru/civil-institutions-are-examples-the-main-institutions-of-civil-society-and-the-ways-of-their-formation.html


Civil society is a system of public institutions and relations (moral, family, religious, national, socio-economic, etc.) that are independent and independent of the state, providing conditions for the realization of the interests and needs of individuals and collectives for the life of the economic, political, social, cultural and the spiritual realms.


  1. The presence in society of free owners of the means of production;
  2. Developed democracy
  3. Legal protection of citizens;
  4. A certain level of civic culture;
  5. High educational level of the population;
  6. The most complete provision of human rights and freedoms;
  7. A high degree of self-government;
  8. Freely forming public opinion, pluralism;
  9. Inviolability of private property
  10. Large share in middle class society


  1. Restrains arbitrary expansion of state power
  2. Creates and develops mechanisms of public self-government
  3. Provides turnover of power
  4. Protects people's privacy
  5. Struggles to implement the principle the rule of law


In the social sciences, the following main approaches to defining the essence of civil society are distinguished:

as an opposition to anarchy;

as opposed to the church;

as opposed to the state;

as a specific phenomenon of Western civilization.


The slogan of a true civil society is not “Let the government do it”, but “Let us do it ourselves.” (Dwight D. Eisenhower)

Civil society is a union of individuals, a collective in which all its members acquire the highest human qualities ... (Hobbes)

Civil society is a blessing, and the state is an inevitable evil. The more perfect a civil society is, the less it needs regulation by the state. (Thomas Payne)

The civil society is outside the state, but in close contact with it. (Hegel)

Civil society is a system of public institutions and relations that are independent and independent of the state, which are designed to provide conditions for the self-realization of individual individuals and collectives, the realization of private interests and needs. (Marx and Engels)

Civil society is the sphere of realizing especially private goals and interests of an individual. There is no genuine freedom in civil society, since there is always a contradiction between private interests and power, which is universal in nature. (Georg Hegel)

Civil society is the sphere of material, economic life and human activity. It is precisely this that is primary in relation to the state, civil life as the sum of various interests holds the state together. (Marx and Engels)

... We are interested in the development of civil society in Russia itself, so that it scolds the authorities, helps the authorities determine their own mistakes, adjust their policies in the interests of the people (V.V. Putin)

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